Jumat, 28 Maret 2008

GURU SEBAGAI PENDIDIK DAN TENAGA PROFESIONAL


GURU SEBAGAI PENDIDIK & TENAGA PROFESSIONAL

Diedit dan ditambah
oleh:

Bapak Endang J. S.Pd., Bapak Drs. Ahmad S. dan Bapak Drs. Nanang S.

SMAN 1 Banjar, Jawa Barat

Arip Nurahman

Indonesia University of Education, Bandung. Indonesia
&
Open Course Ware at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States














Tulisan ini Kami Persembahkan Kepada Almarhum Drs. Wawan Gunawan
(Kepala Sekolah SMAN 1 Banjar, Jawa Barat, Indonesia)

Yang sampai Akhir Hayatnya mengabdikan dirinya terhadap dunia Pendidikan

Hymne Guru

Terpujilah wahai engkau ibu bapak guru
Namamu akan selalu hidup dalam sanubariku
Semua baktimu akan kuukir di dalam hatiku
Sebagai prasasti terima kasihku
Tuk pengabdianmu

Engkau sabagai pelita dalam kegelapan
Engkau laksana embun penyejuk dalam kehausan
Engkau patriot pahlawan bangsa
Tanpa tanda jasa

Keterangan :
Pahlawan tanda jasa adalah sebutan bagi para guru.


Selamat Jalan Bapak! Semangat dan Harapan mu akan kami teruskan


Abstract

In education, a teacher is one who helps students or pupils, often in a school, as well as in a family, religious or community setting. A teacher is an acknowledged guide or helper in processes of learning. A teacher's role may vary between cultures. Academic subjects are emphasized in many societies, but a teacher's duties may include instruction in craftsmanship or vocational training, spirituality, civics, community roles, or life skills. In modern schools and most contemporary occidental societies, where scientific pedagogy is practiced, the teacher is defined as a specialized profession on the same level as many other professions.


Introduction

Professional educators

Teaching may be carried out informally, within the family (see Homeschooling) or the wider community. Formal teaching may be carried out by paid professionals. Such professionals enjoy a status in some societies on a par with physicians, lawyers, engineers, and accountants (Chartered or CPA).

A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching. Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, and serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline.

Around the world teachers are often required to obtain specialized education and professional licensure. The teaching profession is regarded for having a body of specialised professional knowledge, codes of ethics and internal monitoring.

There are a variety of bodies designed to instill, preserve and update the knowledge and professional standing of teachers. Around the world many governments operate teacher's colleges, which are generally established to serve and protect the public interest through certifying, governing and enforcing the standards of practice for the teaching profession.

The functions of the teacher's colleges may include setting out clear standards of practice, providing for the ongoing education of teachers, investigating complaints involving members, conducting hearings into allegations of professional misconduct and taking appropriate disciplinary action and accrediting teacher education programs. In many situations teachers in publicly funded schools must be members in good standing with the college, and private schools may also require their teachers to be college members. In other areas these roles may belong to the State Board of Education, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the State Education Agency or other governmental bodies. In still other areas Teaching Unions may be responsible for some or all of these duties.


Pedagogy and teaching

In education, teachers facilitate student learning, often in a school or academy or perhaps in another environment such as outdoors. A teacher who teaches on an individual basis may be described as a tutor.

The objective is typically accomplished through either an informal or formal approach to learning, including a course of study and lesson plan that teaches skills, knowledge and/or thinking skills. Different ways to teach are often referred to as pedagogy. When deciding what teaching method to use teachers consider students' background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. Many times, teachers assist in learning outside of the classroom by accompanying students on field trips. The increasing use of technology, specifically the rise of the internet over the past decade has begun to shape the way teachers approach their role in the classroom.

The objective is typically a course of study, lesson plan, or a practical skill. A teacher may follow standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. The teacher may interact with students of different ages, from infants to adults, students with different abilities and students with learning disabilities.

Secondary School Teachers

Perhaps the most significant difference between primary and secondary teaching in the UK is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum. In secondary schools they will be taught by different subject specialists each session during the week and may have 10 or more different teachers. The relationship between children and their teachers tends to be closer in the primary school where they act as form tutor, specialist teacher and surrogate parent during the course of the day.

This is true throughout most of the United States as well. However, alternative approaches for primary education do exist. One of these, sometimes referred to as a "platoon" system, involves placing a group of students together in one class that moves from one specialist to another for every subject. The advantage here is that students learn from teachers who specialize in one subject and who tend to be more knowledgeable in that one area than a teacher who teaches many subjects. Students still derive a strong sense of security by staying with the same group of peers for all classes.

Co-teaching has also become a new trend amongst educational institutions. Co-teaching is defined as two or more teachers working harmoniously to fulfill the needs of every student in the classroom. Co-teaching focuses the student on learning by providing a social networking support that allows them to reach their full cognitive potential. Co-teachers work in sync with one another to create a climate of learning.


Teacher Conditions in Indonesia

Oleh: Fima Rosyidah
(fmzahra@yahoo.com)
Mahasiswa Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, FBS, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

Berbicara tentang cita-cita anak-anak di masa sekarang tentu sudah akan berbeda dengan 20 bahkan 10 tahun yang lalu, dimana lebih banyak anak yang bercita-cita menjadi dokter, pengacara, maupun pilot. Kemudian dimana anak-anak memposisikan guru? Bukankah setiap hari mereka selalu berhadapan dengan guru mereka dan berinteraksi dengan mereka?

Berbicara mengenai guru, tentu yang akan terlintas dalam benak kita adalah gaji yang sedikit serta kualitas mereka. Jika kita sering memperhatikan berita-berita yang ada di surat kabar, cerita tentang nasib guru bukanlah cerita yang menyenangkan, akan tetapi cerita yang suram dan menyedihkan. Misalnya nasib guru kontrak yang ada di wilayah-wilayah pelosok Indonesia. Hal ini tentu dapat dijadikan refleksi bagi institusi penghasil guru serta pemerintah.

Ketika kondisi pendidikan di Indonesia semakin memprihatinkan, dimana biaya pendidikan semakin mahal, masyarakat menuntut kualitas pengajaran yang baik. Sebagaimana dikemukakan oleh Freire (2002), pendidikan harus melibatkan tiga unsur sekaligus dalam hubungan dialektisnya yang ajeg, yaitu pengajar, pelajar atau anak didik, serta realitas dunia, maka kita tidak dapat menyalahkan guru semata yang mungkin dinilai tidak qualified untuk mengajar, melainkan kita juga perlu mempertimbangkan faktor-faktor yang lain yang mendukung kondisi pendidikan kita.

Peningkatan kualitas para guru memang masih dipertanyakan sampai sekarang ini. Fenomena yang ada di masyarakat menunjukkan bahwa banyak para sarjana di bidang non kependidikan mengambil alternatif program tambahan Akta IV atau program kependidikan guna mendapat sertifikat supaya dapat menjadi guru. Pada umumnya mereka mengambil alternatif Akta IV sebagai alternatif terakhir mengingat pekerjaan yang lain sangat sulit diperoleh. Bagaimana dengan kualitas mereka, benarkah mereka mampu menjadi guru sebagai tenaga profesional?

Terkadang manusia melihat suatu jenis pekerjaan berdasarkan prestigenya. Seperti menjadi dokter tentu masyakarat akan lebih menghargainya dibandingkan guru. Selain gaji yang berbeda, proses pembelajaran yang dijalani oleh calon dokter juga berbeda dengan calon guru. Sehingga sudah merupakan hal yang lumrah dimana gaji yang mereka peroleh di masa bekerjanya cukup besar yaitu seimbang dengan biaya yang dikeluarkan selama proses belajar untuk menjadi dokter.

Alangkah bahagianya para guru itu jika mendapatkan reward yang hampir sama dengan dokter. Mereka tidak harus terus mengemban label "pahlawan tanpa tanda jasa" bukan? Sebaiknya institusi penghasil guru perlu mempertimbangkan hal-hal sebagai berikut: 1) Memperbaiki kurikulum perkuliahan dengan menekankan pada kompetensi guru yang berkualitas; 2) Memasukkan program pembekalan lapangan dalam proses belajar-mengajar selama jangka waktu 1 tahun di sekolah-sekolah yang membutuhkan tenaga pengajar sebagai wahana pembentukan tenaga guru yang profesional.

Kemudian dari pemerintah diharapkan dapat melaksanakan program penempatan guru di wilayah-wilayah pelosok Indonesia yang masih banyak mnembutuhkan guru dengan memberikan gaji yang sesuai, oleh karena itu anggaran pendidikan perlu ditingkatkan. Peningkatan anggaran ini tidak hanya untuk mensejahterakan guru sebagai tenaga pengajar, melainkan juga untuk mengembangkan program-program untuk meningkatkan mutu pendidikan. Semua usaha ini jika dapat dilaksanakan secara sinergis maka sedikit demi sedikit akan meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan di Indonesia yang selama ini masih merupakan suatu impian masyarakat Indonesia pada umumnya.

Teaching around the world

There are many similarities and differences among teachers around the world. In almost all countries teachers are educated in a university or college. Governments may require certification by a recognized body before they can teach in a school.

England and Wales

Nursery, Primary and Secondary School teachers ranged from £20,133 to £41,004 in September 2007, although some salaries can go much higher depending on experience.[1] Preschool teachers may earn £20,980 annually.[citation needed] State school teachers must have at least a bachelor's degree, complete an approved teacher education program, and be licensed.

Many counties offer alternative licensing programs to attract people into teaching, especially for hard-to-fill positions. Excellent job opportunities are expected as retirements, especially among secondary school teachers, outweigh slowing enrollment growth; opportunities will vary by geographic area and subject taught.[citation needed]

France

Main article: Education in France

In France, teachers, or professors, are mainly civil servants, recruited by competitive examination.

Republic of Ireland

Main article: Education in Ireland

Salaries for primary teachers in the Republic of Ireland depend mainly on seniority (i.e. holding the position of principal, deputy principal or assistant principal), experience and qualifications. Extra pay is also given for teaching through the Irish language, in a Gaeltacht area or on an island. The basic pay for a starting teacher is 31,028 p.a., rising incrementally to €57,403 for a teacher with 25 years' service. A principal of a large school with many years' experience and several qualifications (M.A., H.Dip., etc.) could earn over €90,000.[2]

Scotland

Main article: Education in Scotland

In Scotland, anyone wishing to teach must be registered with the General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS). Teaching in Scotland is an all graduate profession and the normal route for graduates wishing to teach is to complete a programme of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) at one of the seven Scottish Universities who offer these courses. Once successfully completed, 'Provisional Registration' is given by the GTCS which is raised to 'Full Registration' status after a year if there is sufficient evidence to show that the 'Standard for Full Registration' has been met.[3]

For salary year beginning April 2008, unpromoted teachers in Scotland earned from £20,427 for a Probationer, up to £32,583 after 6 years teaching, but could then go on to earn up to £39,942 as they complete the modules to earn Chartered Teacher Status (requiring at least 6 years at up to two modules per year.) Promotion to Principal Teacher positions attracts a salary of between £34,566 and £44,616; Depute Head, and Head teachers earn from £40,290 to £78,642.[4]

United States

Further information: Paraprofessional educator

In the United States, each state determines the requirements for getting a license to teach in public schools. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that there are 1.4 million elementary school teachers,[5] 600,000 middle school teachers,[6] and 1 million secondary school teachers employed in the U.S.[7]

US teachers are generally paid on graduated scales, with income depending on experience. Salaries vary greatly depending on state, relative cost of living, and grade taught. The median salary for all primary and secondary teachers was $46,000 in 2004, with the average entry salary for a teacher with a bachelor's degree being an estimated $32,000. Median salaries for preschool teachers, however, were less than half the national median for secondary teachers, clock in at an estimated $21,000 in 2004.[8] For high school teachers, median salaries in 2007 ranged from $35,000 in South Dakota to $71,000 in New York, with a national median of $52,000.[9] Some contracts may include long-term disability insurance, life insurance, emergency/personal leave and investment options.[10] The American Federation of Teachers' teacher salary survey for the 2004-05 school year found that the average teacher salary was $47,602.[11] In a salary survey report for K-12 teachers, elementary school teachers had the lowest median salary earning $39,259. High school teachers had the highest median salary earning $41,855.[12]

Stress

As a profession, teaching has very high levels of Work-Related Stress (WRS)[13] which are listed as amongst the highest of any profession in some countries, such as the United Kingdom. The degree of this problem is becoming increasingly recognized and support systems are being put into place.[14][15]

Spiritual teacher

Main article: Spiritual teacher

In Hinduism the spiritual teacher is known as a guru. Traditionally, a spiritual seeker would revere his or her guru highly, and demonstrate utmost submission and humility through menial service in order to prove worthy to be a recipient of the knowledge the guru has attained by initiation practices. There are many sayings on the teacher like "Guru devo bhava" (Guru is God), which reflects of the esteem associated with a guru's role.

In the Latter Day Saint movement the teacher is an office in the Aaronic priesthood, while in Tibetan Buddhism the teachers of Dharma in Tibet are most commonly called a Lama. A Lama who has through phowa and siddhi consciously determined to be reborn, often many times, in order to continue their Bodhisattva vow is called a Tulku.

There are many concepts of teachers in Islam, ranging from mullahs (the teachers at madrassas) to ulemas.

A Rabbi is generally regarded as the Jewish spiritual teacher.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

External links

References

  1. ^ http://www.tda.gov.uk/upload/resources/pdf/t/teacher_salaries.pdf 'Teacher Salaries from September 2007' TDA (Training and Development Agency)
  2. ^ Department of Education & Science - - Education Personnel
  3. ^ Training to be a teacher GTC Scotland
  4. ^ Teach in Scotland
  5. ^ Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education
  6. ^ Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Vocational Education
  7. ^ Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Vocational Education
  8. ^ "U.S. Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics. (July 18, 2007). Teachers—Preschool, Kindergarten, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary: Earnings.". Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
  9. ^ "U.S. Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics. (August, 2007). Spotlight on Statistics: Back to School.". Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
  10. ^ "Make It Happen: A Student's Guide," National Education Association. Retrieved 7/5/07.
  11. ^ 2005 "Survey & Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends," American Federation of Teachers. Retrieved 8/5/07.
  12. ^ 2008 "Teacher Salary- Average Teacher Salaries" PayScale. Retrieved 9/16/08.
  13. ^ Work-Related Stress in teaching
  14. ^ Teacher Support for England & Wales
  15. ^ Teacher Support for Scotland
  16. ^ Goorian, Brad (December 1999). "Sexual Misconduct by School Employees.". ERIC Digest (134): p.1. ERIC #: ED436816. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  17. ^ Shakeshaft, Charol (June 2004). "Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of Existing Literature" (PDF) p. 28. U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  18. ^ Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of Existing Literature see page 8 and page 20
  19. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,432881,00.html
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