Selasa, 23 September 2008

Membangun Sekolah Bertaraf International (Inventing Better School)

Inventing Better School

Langkah Strategis Membangun Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Di Kota Banjar

1. Sarana dan Prasarana

Components of Most International Schools

(Hardware in International School)

Di Susun dan Di Edit oleh:


Bpk. Endang J*. S.Pd., Drs. Ahmad S*., Drs. Nanang S.*

SMAN 1 Kota Banjar


Arip Nurahman and Ade Akhyar N.

Department of Physics Education Indonesia University of Education, Bandung Indonesia and

Follower Open Course Ware at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge M.A., USA.

Department of Geology Engineering UNSOED University, Purwokerto M.J. Indonesia

(Corrector in Language)

Yusuf Kurniawan S.Pd., Taryono S.Pd. & Arif Nurhasan S.T.


A school (from Greek σχολή (scholē), originally meaning "leisure", and also "that in which leisure is employed", "school"), is an institution designed to allow and encourage students (or "pupils") to learn, under the supervision of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below), but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education.

In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also have access to and attend schools both before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3-5). University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after (or in lieu of) secondary school. A school may also be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods.

There are also non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be for children with special needs when the government does not supply for them; religious, such as Islamic School,

Christian Schools, Khalsa Schools, Torah Schools and others; or schools that have a higher standard of education or seek to foster other personal achievements.

In homeschooling and online schools, teaching and learning take place outside of a traditional school building.


History of Education

In its widest sense, the history of education is the history of teaching and of learning, and the history of what might be described as the curricula: what it is that is taught or learned.

Education has taken place in most communities since earliest times. Each generation has sought to pass on cultural and social values, traditions, morality, religion, knowledge and skills to the next generation. The history of the curricula of such informal education reflects human history itself, the history of knowledge, beliefs, skills and cultures of humanity.

In pre-literate societies, education was achieved orally and through imitation. Later, with the development of writing, it became possible for stories, poetry, knowledge, beliefs, and customs to be recorded and passed on more accurately to people out of earshot and to future generations.

As the customs and knowledge of ancient civilizations became more complex, many skills would have been learned from a master on the job, in construction, stone work, metal work, boat building, animal husbandry, agriculture, the making of weapons and defenses, the military skills, and many other occupations. Schools of formal learning were also established, although schooling was usually only available to a small part of the population, either at religious institutions or for the wealthy who could afford to pay for their tutors. The earliest known universities, or places of higher education, started teaching a millennium or more ago.

However, for most of the past 2000 years in many civilizations across the world, a formal general education, even at primary level, and literacy have been available only to small sections of the community. In most cultures, universal formal education of all children is a recent development, not occuring in many countries until after 1850. Even today, in some parts of the world, literacy rates are below 60 per cent (for example, in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh and most of Africa).

Schools, colleges and universities have not been the only methods of formal education and training. Many professions have additional training requirements, and in Europe, from the Middle Ages until recent times, the skills of a trade were not generally learnt in a classroom, but rather by serving an apprenticeship.

Nowadays, formal education consists of systematic instruction, teaching and training by professional teachers. This consists of the application of pedagogy and the development of curricula.


Components of most schools

Schools are organized spaces purposed for teaching and learning. The classrooms, where teachers teach and students learn, are of central importance, but typical schools have many other areas which may include:

  • Cafeteria (Commons), dining hall or canteen where students eat lunch.
  • athletic field, playground, gym, and/or track place where students participating in sports or physical education practice
  • auditorium or hall where student theatrical or musical productions can be staged and where all-school events such as assemblies are held.
  • office where the administrative work of the school is done.
  • library where students consult and check out books.
  • Specialized classrooms including laboratories for science education.
  • A Computer lab where computer-based work is done

A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, a library is a collection of books. The term can mean the collection, the building that houses such a collection, or both.

The collection and services are used by people who choose not to — or cannot afford to — purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research.

However, with the collection of media other than books for storing information, many libraries are now also repositories and access points for maps, prints, or other documents and works of art on various storage media such as microform (microfilm/microfiche), audio tapes, CDs, LPs, cassettes, videotapes, and DVDs. Libraries may also provide public facilities to access CD-ROMs, subscription databases, and the Internet.

Thus, modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. In addition to providing materials, they also provide the services of specialists, librarians, who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs.

More recently, libraries are understood as extending beyond the physical walls of a building, by including material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of knowledge with a variety of digital tools.

The term "library" has itself acquired a secondary meaning: "a collection of useful material for common use," and in this sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics and statistics, electronics and biology.


A computer lab, also known as a Computer Suite is typically a room which contains many networked computers for public use. Computer labs can be found in libraries, schools, government buildings, science labs, community centers, companies with IT departments that requires such a place for their employees to do their jobs, and research centers. They are distinct from Internet cafes in that the usage of the computer lab is typically free for those with access. Printers, scanners, and other peripherals may augment the lab setup.


Because they are shared by multiple users, computers in typical labs often have security software installed. This software may limit, trace, or block certain activities. Macintosh computers may have software such as the older At Ease or the newer MacAdministrator. Windows computers may have protection software such as Fortres or Deep Freeze, and often contain network applications, like Novell NetWare for network security and administration. Due to the high number of computers in a lab, many lab administrators choose to use remote administration software such as VNC. Computer labs in schools often have classroom management software installed to manage and control student computer activity from the teacher’s computer, to monitor or prevent web browsing and to remotely control student computers.

The computers are often in a computer network. The computers may also be thin clients.

In addition, some companies such as Kinkos or Mail Boxes Etc. provide labs with computers to use for an hourly fee. Computers are used for research and other reasons.

See also

Maket Mini Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional SMAN 1 Banjar, Jawa Barat. Indonesia

Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Quo Vadis

Oleh: Bpk. Satria Dharma
(Direktur The Centre for the Betterment of Education (CBE))

Ketertinggalan di berbagai bidang di era globalisasi dibandingkan negara-negara tetangga rupanya menyebabkan pemerintah terdorong untuk memacu diri untuk memiliki standar internasional. Sektor pendidikan termasuk yang didorong untuk berstandar internasional. Dorongan itu bahkan dicantumkan di dalam :

UU No. 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sisdiknas pasal 50 ayat (3) yang berbunyi, “Pemerintah dan/atau pemerintah daerah menyelenggarakan sekurang-kurangnya satu satuan pendidikan pada semua jenjang pendidikan, untuk dikembangkan menjadi satuan pendidikan yang bertaraf internasional. “.

Dengan berbekal keinginan kuat dan ayat itu maka Depdiknas segera mengeluarkan program Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (SBI) yang proyek rintisannya saja telah menyertakan ratusan SMP dan SMA di hampir semua Kabupaten/Kota di seluruh Indonesia dengan menggelontorkan dana ratusan milyar meski peraturan pemerintah yang mengatur pengelolaan seperti itu belum ada. Ini proyek prestisius karena akan dibiayai oleh Pemerintah Pusat 50%, Pemerintah Propinsi 30 %, dan Pemerintah Kabupaten/Kota 20%. Padahal, untuk setiap sekolahnya saja Pemerintah Pusat mengeluarkan 300 juta rupiah setiap tahun paling tidak selama 3 (tiga) tahun dalam masa rintisan tersebut.

Siapa saja yang nantinya akan masuk ke sekolah SBI ini? Siswa yang bisa masuk ke sekolah tersebut, adalah mereka yang dianggap sebagai bibit-bibit unggul yang telah diseleksi ketat dan yang akan diperlakukan secara khusus. Jumlah siswa di kelas akan dibatasi antara 24-30 per kelas. Kegiatan belajar mengajarnya akan menggunakan bilingual. Pada tahun pertama bahasa pengantar yang digunakan 25 persen bahasa Inggris 75 persen bahasa Indonesia. Pada tahun kedua bahasa pengantarnya masing-masing 50 persen untuk Inggris dan Indonesia. Pada tahun ketiga bahasa pengantar menggunakan 75 persen bahasa Inggris dan 25 persen bahasa Indonesia.

Karena dianggap sebagai bibit unggul maka siswa diprioritaskan untuk belajar ilmu eksakta dan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (ICT/Information and Communication Technology). Karenanya, siswa kelas khusus ini diberi fasilitas belajar tambahan berupa komputer dengan sambungan internet. Apa kurikulum yang akan diberikan kepada mereka agar ‘berstandar internasional’?

Tidak jelas betul karena hanya disebutkan rumusnya adalah SNP + X. SNP adalah Standar Nasional Pendidikan sedangkan X hanya disebutkan sebagai penguatan, pengayaan, pengembangan, perluasan, pendalaman, melalui adaptasi atau adopsi terhadap standar pendidikan baik dari dalam negeri maupun luar negeri yang diyakini telah memiliki reputasi mutu yang diakui secara internasional umpamanya Cambridge, IB, TOEFL/TOEIC, ISO, UNESCO.

Berapa dana yang harus dikeluarkan oleh orang tua yang ‘ngebet’ dengan program ini? Masih akan diatur. Tapi yang jelas orang tua harus merogoh koceknya dalam-dalam dan hanya orang tua yang kaya saja yang bisa masuk. Ini adalah program prestisius sehingga biayanya memang harus mahal!.

Semoga Saja Tidak! (Amin!)



  • Dodge, B. (1962). ‘Muslim Education in the Medieval Times’, The Middle East Institute, Washington D.C.
  • Education as Enforcement: The Militarization and Corporatization of Schools, edited by Kenneth J. Saltman and David A. Gabbard, RoutledgeFalmer
  • Makdisi, G. (1980). ‘On the origin and development of the college in Islam and the West’, in Islam and the Medieval West, ed. Khalil I. Semaan, State University of New York Press
  • Nakosteen, M. (1964). ‘History of Islamic origins of Western Education AD 800-1350’, University of Colorado Press, Boulder, Colorado,
  • Ribera, J. (1928). ‘Disertaciones Y Opusculos’, 2 vols. Madrid
  • Spielhofer, Thomas, Tom Benton, Sandie Schagen. “A study of the effects of school size and single-sex education in English schools.” Research Papers in Education Jun. 2004:133 159, 27.
  • Toppo, Greg. "High-tech school security is on the rise." USA Today 9 Oct 2006.
  • Traditions and Encounters, by Jerry H. Bentley and Herb F. Ziegler

Sabtu, 20 September 2008

Pengelolaan Pendidikan Sekolah Berstandar International

Pengelolaan Pendidikan Sekolah Berstandar International
(Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional)

Di Susun dan Di Edit oleh:


Bpk. Endang J*. S.Pd., Drs. Ahmad S*., Drs. Nanang S.*

SMAN 1 Kota Banjar, Jawa Barat. Indonesia.

Arip Nurahman

Department of Physics Education Indonesia University of Education, Bandung Indonesia


Follower Open Course Ware at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Harvard University. Cambridge M.A., USA.

Apakah SBI ini akan membuat kita dapat mengejar ketertinggalannya dibandingkan negara-negara lain?

Tunggu dulu.

Jika kita cermati ternyata program SBI ini mengandung banyak kekurangan mencolok. Alih-alih menghasilkan kualitas bertaraf internasional kualitas pendidikan kita justru akan terjun bebas.

Mengapa? Ada beberapa kelemahan mendasar dari program SBI ini.

Pertama, program ini nampaknya tidak didahului dengan riset yang mendalam dan konsepnya lemah. Dengan menyatakan bahwa SBI = SNP + X, maka sebenarnya konsep SBI ini tidak memiliki bentuk dan arah yang jelas. Tidak jelas apa yang diperkuat, diperkaya, dikembangkan, diperdalam, dll tersebut.

Jika konsep ini secara jelas menyatakan mengadopsi atau mengadaptasi standar pendidikan internasional seperti Cambridge IGCSE atau IB, umpamanya, maka akan lebih jelas kemana arah dari program ini.

Dengan memasukkan TOEFL/TOEIC, ISO dan UNESCO sebagai “X” juga menunjukkan bahwa Dikdasmen juga tidak begitu paham dengan apa yang ia maksud dengan “X” tersebut. Atau mungkin ini sebuah strategi agar target yang hendak dikejar menjadi longgar dan sulit untuk diukur?

Sekolah-sekolah yang mengadopsi atau berkiblat pada standar internasional seperti Cambridge atau International Baccalaureate (IB) adalah sekolah-sekolah yang memang dirancang untuk mempersiapkan siswa-siswa mereka agar dapat melanjutkan ke luar negeri. Dengan sistem kurikulum tersebut siswa mereka memang dipersiapkan untuk dapat belajar di luar negeri.

Mereka bahkan tidak perlu mengikuti Ujian Nasional karena mereka memang tidak berencana untuk meneruskan pendidikan mereka di universitas di Indonesia. Nah, dengan demikian, apakah sebenarnya yang hendak dituju dengan program SBI ini? Jika yang hendak dituju adalah peningkatan kualitas pembelajaran dan output pendidikan maka mengadopsi IB ataupun mengikutsertakan siswa dalam ujian Cambridge bukanlah jawabannya.

Ujian Cambridge diperuntukkan bagi siswa yang ingin melanjutkan pendidikannya ke luar negeri. Meski demikian nilai yang tinggi dalam ujian Cambridge juga bukan jaminan bahwa siswa dapat diterima di perguruan tinggi di luar negeri. Nilai ujian Cambridge hanya akan memudahkan siswa untuk dapat diterima di perti LN karena nilai ujian Cambridge diakui oleh beberapa negara. Permasalahannya adalah berapa banyak dari siswa kita sebenarnya yang ingin melanjutkan pendidikannya ke luar negeri?

Berapa persenkah dari lulusan sekolah publik kita yang benar-benar ingin dan mampu, baik secara finansial maupun intelektual, untuk melanjutkan studinya ke luar negeri? Jika Depdiknas tidak memiliki data statistik tentang hal ini mengapa tiba-tiba timbul kebijakan untuk mengubah sekolah-sekolah kita menjadi SBI yang berkiblat pada Cambridge?

Bukankah ini suatu pengorbanan yang sangat sia-sia yang bakal menelantarkan siswa-siswa lain yang tidak akan melanjutkan pendidikannya ke luar negeri? Untuk apa kita mengerahkan seluruh energi dan kapasitas kita membawa siswa menuju ke sistem Cambridge,umpamanya, jika sebenarnya tujuan yang hendak dituju bukanlah kesana? Ini adalah contoh tujuan pendidikan yang sangat misleading.

Jelas sekali bahwa tidak mungkin sekolah harus mengikuti dua kiblat, yaitu UNAS dan Cambridge umpamanya, karena akan sangat menyulitkan bagi sekolah maupun murid untuk mengikuti dua kiblat tersebut. Beberapa sekolah National Plus yang selama ini memang dirancang untuk mengikuti dua kiblat tersebut mengakui bahwa sangat sulit bagi mereka untuk mengikuti dua kiblat tersebut sekaligus. (Bpk. Satria Dharma, Direktur The Centre for the Betterment of Education (CBE))

What makes a good school?

In today's public schools, where diversity is vast and complex, a good school must provide a strong functioning culture that aligns with their visionof purpose. Good schools depend on a strong sense of purpose and leadership. However, in order to build a culture that is integral to school life, principals must gear their students, faculty, and staff in a common direction and provide a set of norms that describes what they should accomplish.

Sergiovanni (2001) elaborates on the principal's influence in shaping school culture by stating that, once established in a school, strong culture acts as a powerful socializer of thought and programmer of behavior. Yet, the shaping and establishment of such a culture does not just happen; they are, instead, a negotiated product of the shared sentiments of school participants.

When competing points of view and competing ideologies exist in school, deciding which ones will count requires some struggling. Principals are in an advantageous position to strongly influence the outcome of this struggle.

The building of school culture further requires that building leaders pay close attention to the informal, subtle or symbolic aspects of school life. Teachers, parents, and students should look for answers to questions such as:

1. What is this school about?

2. What is important here?

3. What do we believe in?

4. Why do things function the way they do?

5. How do I fit into the scheme of things?

As Greenfield (1973) stated, what many people seem to want from schools is that schools reflect the values that are central and meaningful in their lives. If this view is correct, schools are cultural artifacts that people struggle to shape in their own image. Only in such forms do they have faith in them; only in such forms can they participate comfortably in them.

Leaders of successful schools develop moral order that bind the people around them together. When establishing culture, principals must be able to infuse various ideas, beliefs, values, theories and decision making into their school. Collaborative discourse is a powerful tool that can be used to facilitate the process of developing school culture and climate.

Leaders, who look to build their school communities, must recognize that educators, who work together, achieve a collective purpose resulting from their collegiality, which is critical in establishing a successful school. However, for meaningful collaboration to occur, capacity building must take place. Capacity building has frequently appeared in educational literature across the United States.

Ann Lieberman (1997) coined this term which means, organizing schools for improvement by allowing teachers to work in teams and with instructional leaders to channel staff efforts towards a clear, commonly shared purpose for student learning. When channeled correctly, these habits and conditions allow staff members to work and contribute to a professional community.

Such communities are places where teachers, specialist and building administrators engage in decision making, have a shared sense of purpose and work to support an infrastructure that involves alignment of instructions goals. Newmann and Wehlage in their 1995 work, Successful School Restructuring, firmly link student achievement to the effective work habits of adults stating that the most successful school were those that used restructuring to help them as professional communities.

Teachers and leaders collaborate and help one another achieve the purpose of student learning. Teachers and instructional supervisors in these schools help one another take responsibility for academic success. These schools which maintain a strong professional community are better able to offer authentic pedagogy and are more effective in promoting student achievement.

School leaders who give their attention to establishing their school culture by addressing the question, what is this school about, begin with a period of organization as the school initiates new collaborative processes that relates to norms, teams, vision, use of data, shared expectations, and ways of working together.

Standar Pengelolaan Pendidikan.

Sebagaimana juga telah ditetapkan dalam UUSPN Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 dan PP Nomor 19 Tahun 2005, dan lebih dijabarkan dalam Permendiknas Nomor 19 Tahun 2007 bahwa “setiap satuan pendidikan wajib memenuhi standar pengelolaan pendidikan yang berlaku secara nasional”, beberapa aspek standar pengelolaan sekolah yang harus dipenuhi adalah meliputi:

(1) perencanaan program,
(2) pelaksanaan rencana kerja,
(3) pengawasan dan evaluasi,
(4) kepemimpinan sekolah/madrasah, dan
(5) sistem informasi manajemen.

Standar perencanaan program sekolah meliputi: rumusan visi sekolah, misi sekolah, tujuan sekolah, rencana kerja sekolah. Standar pelaksanaan rencana kerja sekolah, maka harus terpenuhi dan terealisasi beberapa aspek dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan yaitu: kepemilikan pedoman-pedoman sekolah yang mengatur berbagai aspek pengelolaan secara tertulis, struktur organisaisi sekolah, pelaksanaan kegiatan, bidang kesiswaan, bidang kurikulum dan kegiatan pembelajaran, bidang pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan, bidang sarana dan prasarana, bidang keuangan dan pembiayaan, budaya danyang berlaku secara nasional lingkungan sekolah, dan peran serta masyarakat dan kemitraan.

Standar pengawasan dan evaluasi yang harus juga dipenuhi dan dilaksanakan sekolah adalah: aspek-aspek program pengawasan, evaluasi diri, evaluasi dan pengembangan, evaluasi pendayagunaan pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan, dan akreditasi sekolah. Kepemimpinan sekolah yang diharapkan dapat dipenuhi oleh sekolah antara lain: adanya kepala sekolah yang memenuhi persyaratan, minimal satu wakil kepala sekolah yang dipilih secara demokratis, kepala sekolah memiliki kemampuan memimpin (pengetahuan, keterampilan, dan perilaku) sekolah, dan terdapat pendelegasian sebagian tugas dan kewenangan kepada wakilnya.

Sedangkan sistem informasi manajemen (SIM) merupakan suaru sistem yang mengaplikasikan berbagai bidang pendidikan berbasiskan komputer/internet. Hal ini diharapkan dapat dipenuhi oleh sekolah untuk mengelola dan hiendukung berbagai administrasi sekolah, memberikan fasilitas yang efisien, dan sebagai bentuk layanan informasi dan komunikasi kepada para pemangku kepentingan.


Oleh Suparlan *)

Mahatma Gandhi mengingatkan bahwa semua hak itu berasal dari kewajiban yang telah dilaksanakan dengan baik
(Mahatma Gandhi)

Pertama, kita bentuk kebiasaan-kebiasaan kita. Setelah itu, kebiasaan-kebiasaan tersebutlah yang akan membentuk kita
(John C. Maxwell)

Kurang lebih satu jam sebelum menulis artikel ini, penulis sangat prihatin karena telah membaca e-mail tentang kesadisan seorang guru di Jombang yang telah menampar muridnya. Sebelumnya ada berita tentang seorang guru SMK yang telah menampar sekian orang siswanya. Bahkan jauh sebelumnya kita tentu mendengar berita di sebuah institutut pemerintahan dalam negeri (IPDN) -- yang mencetak birokrat pemerintahan -- telah berlangsung lama adanya bentuk-bentuk kekerasan para senior terhadap yuniornya. Pertanyaan yang kemudian muncul adalah, budaya sekolah (school culture) yang seperti apakah sebenarnya yang ada di lembaga-lembaga pendidikan tersebut? Apakah lembaga pendidikan itu adalah lembaga pendidikan yang angker, seperti tempat yang menakutkan, atau lembaga pendidikan yang amburadul, seperti pasar yang kumuh, yang semua orang bebas keluar masuk, atau lembaga pendidikan yang terbuka, tertib, bersih, dan sehat.

Seperti apa lembaga pendidikan yang akan kita bangun, amat tergantung pada banyak faktor, mulai kondisi SDM-nya seperti kepala sekolah sampai dengan tenaga pendidik dan tenaga administrasinya sampai dengan peserta didiknya. Budaya sekolah juga amat dipengaruhi oleh sistem manajemen dan organisasinya, serta fasilitas sekolah yang mendudungnya. Suatu lembaga pendidikan berasrama milik militer atau kepolisian akan terlihat mulai dari adanya sistem penjagaan yang ketat. Begitu masuk pintu gerbang lembaga itu suasana itu sudah mulai terasa. Dua penjaga bersenjata lengkap berdiri di depan pos jaga yang siap akan menanyakan kepada semua tamu yang datang. Penjaga itu bisa saja siswa piket atau petugas outsourcing yang ditugasi untuk itu. Itulah budaya kasat mata yang dapat segera kita lihat.

Ada sebuah sekolah dasar yang lokasinya berada di kompleks perumahan. Para orangtua siswa atau para pengantarnya bergerombol di depan pintu gerbang sekolah. Bahkan para pedagang kecil membuka dagangannya di depan gedung sekolah. Suasananya bak pasar tumpah yang ramai. Para siswa mondar-mandir keluar-masuk sekolah. Kadangkala bersama dengan bapak ibu guru yang buru-buru masuk sekolah karena bel telah berbunyi keras sekali. Dan para siswa pun kemudian bersorak lari ke ruangan kelasnya masing-masing.

Masih banyak lagi bentuk-bentuk budaya sekolah yang mencerminkan wajah lembaga pendidikan sekolah itu. Tulisan singkat ini akan menggambarkan beberapa budaya sekolah dan karakteristiknya.

Apakah budaya sekolah itu?

Peterson (1999) menjelaskan “school culture is the behind-the-scenes context that reflects the values, beliefs, norms, traditions, and rituals that build up over time as people in a school work together” Lebih dari itu, Peterson juga menambahkan bahwa budaya sekolah “influences not only the actions of the school population, but also its motivations and spirit”. Budaya sekolah adalah konteks di belakang layar sekolah yang menunjukkan nilai-nilai, norma-norma, tradisi-tradisi, rutual-ritual, yang telah dibangun dalam waktu yang lama oleh semua warga dalam kerja sama di sekolah. Budaya sekolah berpengaruh tidak hanya kepada kegiatan warga sekolah, tetapi juga motivasi dan semangatnya. Dalam konsep sekolah efektif (effective school), budaya sekolah sering disebut sebagai suasana sekolah (school climate), dimaknai sebagai bagaimana warga sekolah berfikir dan bertindak.

Apakah Budaya Sekolah Berpengaruh Terhadap Pendidik dan Keberhasilan Siswa?

Sudah barang tentu, budaya sekolah dapat berpengaruh terhadap semua aspek kehidupan di dalam sekolah, termasuk kepada pendidik dan peserta dididk. Budaya sekolah berpengaruh terhadap bagaimana pendidik berhubungan dan bekerja sama dengan semua warga sekolah, dengan sesama pendidik, peserta didik, orangtua peserta didik, pegawai tata usaha sekolah, dan juga kepada masyarakat. Nilai-nilai sosial budaya sangat berpengaruh terhadap bagaimana sekolah menghadapi masalah sekolah, dan sekaligus memecahkan masalahnya, termasuk masalah hasil belajar peserta didik.

Nilai-nilai sosial budaya sekolah tentu saja dapat dibangun, diubah sesuai dengan budaya baru yang tumbuh dalam masyarakat. Ketika masyarakat masih memiliki paradigma lama dengan menyerahkan sepenuhnya urusan pendidikan anaknya kepada sekolah, maka lahirlah satu bentuk hubungan sekolah dengan orangtua siswa dan masyarakat yang sangat birokratis. Orangtua dan masyarakat berada di bawah perintah kepala sekolah.

Tiga Model Budaya Sekolah dan Karakteristiknya

Dalam praktik di lapangan, ada tiga model budaya sekolah, yang satu dengan yang lain dapat dibedakan, tetapi kadang-kadang juga sering saling tumpang tindih. (Spahier & King, 1984 [as cited in Butler & Dickson, 1987])

Pertama, budaya sekolah birokratis (bureaucratic school culture). Model budaya sekolah ini antara lain ditunjukkan adanya budaya yang menekankan adanya petunjuk dari atasan. Kebijakan sekolah mengikuti arahan dari atasan, dan oleh karena itu para guru lebih banyak mengikuti arahan tersebut. Pendidik juga kurang dapat berinteraksi dengan orangtua siswa dan masyarakat, karena semua harus mengikuti peraturan dan ketentuan dari atasan.

Kedua, budaya sekolah racun (toxic school culture). Dalam model ini, peserta diddik dipandang sebagai masalah ketimbang sebagai pihak yang harus dilayani. Bentuk-bentuk kekerasan guru terhadap siswa yang sering kita dengar akhir-akhir ini merupakan hasil dari budaya sekolah yang seperti ini. Sama dengan pada model budaya sekolah yang birokratis, budaya sekolah racun ini juga malah jarang memberikan kesempatan kepada pendidik untuk memberikan masukan terhadap upaya pemecahan masalah yang terjadi di sekolah.

Ketiga, budaya sekolah kolegial (collegial school culture). Berbeda dengan kedua budaya sekolah sebelumnya, sekolah sangat memberikan apresiasi dan rekognisi terhadap peran dan dukungan dari semua pihak. Kejujuran dan komunikasi antarwarga sekolah dapat berlangsung secara efektif. Itulah sebabnya keterlibatan semua warga sekolah sangat dihargai dalam proses pengambilan keputusan dan kebijakan sekolah. Pendek kata, semua penyelenggaraan sekolah direncanakan, dilaksanakan secara demokratis, dalam suasana penuh kolegial.

Budaya sekolah apa saja yang harus dibangun?

Banyak sekali nilai-nilai sosial budaya yang harus dibangun di sekolah. Sekolah adalah ibarat taman yang subur tempat menanam benih-benih nilai-nilai sosial budaya tersebut. Ingin menanam benih-benih kejujuran dalam masyarakat? Tanamlah di sekolah. Demikian seterusnya dengan benih-benih nilai-nilai sosial budaya lainnya. Dalam tulisan singkat ini hanya diberikan beberapa contoh nilai-nilai sosial budaya yang harus ditanam di ladang bernama sekolah.

1. Pertama, kebiasaan menggosok gigi. Kebiasaan ini sangat Islami. Nabi Muhammad SAW selalu melakukan “siwak” dalam kehidupan sehari-harinya. Ada nilai religius dan medis yang dapat dipetik dari kebiasaan ini. Ucapan yang baik akan berasal dari mulut yang bersih. Secara medis, gigi dan mulut yang bersih akan berdampak terhadap kesehatan otak kita. Hasilnya sama dengan tinjauan dari sudut pandang religius.

2. Kedua, etika. Etika atau akhlakul karimah adalah tata aturan untuk bisa hidup bersama dengan orang lain. Kita hidup tidak sendirian, dilahirkan oleh dan dari orang lain yang bernama ibu dan ayah kita, dan kemudian hidup bersama dengan orang lain. Oleh karena itu, kita harus hidup beretika, menghormati diri sendiri dan orang lain.

3. Ketiga, kejujuran. Semua warga sekolah harus dilatih berbuat jujur, mulai jujur kepada dirinya sendiri, jujur kepada Tuhan, jujur kepada orang lain. Kejujuran itu harus dibangun di sekolah. Bukan sebaliknya. Dari tinjauan inilah barangkali KPK telah membuat program kantin kejujuran di ribuan sekolah di negeri ini. Konon, materi materi matapelajaran matematika modern seharusnya menghasilkan manusia yang jujur di negeri ini. Apalagi dengan materi pelajaran Pendidikan Agama. Tetapi nyatanya tidak demikian. Malah telah menghasilkan banyak koruptor. Materi tentang penjumlahan, pengurangan, dan perkalian ternyata jauh lebih sulit dibandingkan dengan materi tentang pembagian. Hasilnya, membagi kasih sayang, membagi pemerataan, dan membagi kebahagiaan ternyata jarang dilakukan ketimbang mengumpulkan hasil korupsi, mengalikan bunga bank untuk kekayaan pribadi. Oleh karena itu, maka budaya kejujuran harus dapat dibangun di sekolah.

4. Keempat, kasih sayang. Penulis pernah mengutip pandangan guru besar IKIP Surabaya, yang menyatakan bahwa ada tiga landasan pendidikan yang harus dibangun, yaitu (1) kasih sayang, (2) kepercayaan, dan (3) kewibawaan. Menurut beliau, kasing sayang telah melahirkan kepercayaan. Kepercayaan menghasilkan kepercayaan, dan kepercayaan akan menghasilkan kewibawaan.

5. Kelima, mencintai belajar. Mana yang lebih penting? Apakah menguasai pelajaran atau mencintai belajar? Learning how to learn, ternyata akan jauh lebih penting ketimbang bersusah payah menghafalkan bahan ajar yang selalu akan terus bertambah itu. Dari sini lahirlah pendapat bahwa belajar konsep jauh lebih penting daripada menghafalkan fakta dan data.

6. Keenam, bertanggung jawab. Sering kali kita menuntut hak ketimbang tanggung jawab. Mahatma Gandhi mengingatkan bahwa semua hak itu berasal dari kewajiban yang telah dilaksanakan dengan baik. Itulah sebabnya maka kita harus memupuk rasa tanggung jawab ini sejak dini ini di lembaga pendidikan sekolah, bahkan dari keluarga.

7. Ketujuh, menghormati hukum dan peraturan. Sering kita menghormati hukum dan peraturan karena takut kepada para penegak hukum. Kita mematuhi hukum dan perundang-undangan karena takut terhadap ancaman hukuman. Seharusnya, kita mengormati hukum dan peraturan atas dasar kesadaran bahwa hukup dan peraturan itu adalah kita buat untuk kebaikan hidup kita.

8. Kedepalapan, menghormati hak orang lain. Kita masih sering membeda-bedakan orang lain karena berbagai kepentingan. Kita tidak menghargai bahwa sebagian dari apa yang kita peroleh adalah hak orang lain. Kita masih lebih sering mementingkan diri sendiri ketimbang memberikan penghargaan kepada orang lain. Penghargaan kepada orang lain tidak boleh melihat perbedaan status sosial, ekonomi, agama, dan budaya.

9. Kesembilan, mencintai pekerjaan. Ingin berbahagia selamanya, maka bekerjalah dengan senang hati. Ini adalah kata-kata mutiara yang selalu melekat di hati. Pekerjaan adalah bagian penting dari kehidupan ini. Siapa yang tidak bekerja adalah tidak hidup. Oleh karena itu, peserta didik harus diberikan kesadaran tentang pentingnya menghargai pekerjaan.

10. Kesepuluh, suka menabung. Memang kita sering memperoleh hasil pas-pasan dari hasil pekerjaan kita. Tetapi, yang lebih sering, kita mengikuti pola hidup ”lebih besar tiang daripada pasak”. Tidak mempunyai penghasilan cukup tetapi tetap melakukan pola hidup konsumtif. Penghasilan pas-pasan, tetapi tetap menghabiskan uangnya untuk tujuan yang mubazir, seperti merokok. Kita masih jarang memiliki semangat menabung untuk masa depan.

11. Kesebelas, suka bekerja keras. Ngobrol dan duduk-duduk santai adalah kebiasaan lama di pedesaan kita. Pagi-pagi masih berkerudung sarung. Padahal, setelah shalat Subuh, kita diharuskan bertebaran di muka bumi untuk bekerja. Untuk ini, suka bekerja harus menjadi bagian dari pendidikan anak-anak kita di sekolah dan di rumah.

12. Keduabelas, tepat waktu. Waktu adalah pedang, adalah warisan petuah para sahabat Nabi. Time is money adalah warisan para penjelajah ”rules of the waves” bangsa pemberani orang Inggris. Sebaliknya, jam karet adalah istilah sehari-hari bangsa sendiri yang sampai saat ini kita warisi. Mengapa warisan ini tidak dapat segera kita ganti? Maka tanamlah benih-benih menghargai waktu di ladang sekolah kita.

Sudah barang tentu masih banyak lagi nilai-nilai sosial budaya yang harus kita tanam melalui ladang lembaga pendidikan sekolah. Nilai-nilai sosial budaya tersebut harus dapat kita tanam dan terus kita pupuk melalui proses pendidikan dan pembudayaan di rumah, sekolah, dan dalam kehidupan masyarakat kita. Amin.


Barth, R. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Covey, S. (1990). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Goldhammer, R. (1980). Clinical supervision: Special methods for the supervision of teachers.New York:

Greenfield, Thomas B (1984). Leaders and schools: Willfulness and non-natural order, in Thomas Sergiovanni and John E. Corbally (Eds.), Leadership and Organizational Cultur. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press.

Hoy, W., & Forsyth, P. (1986). Effective supervision: theory into practice. New York: McGraw-Hill Company.

Karp, S. (2005). The trouble with takeover. Educational Leadership, 62, (5), 28-32.

Lashway, L. (2003, July). Role of the school leader. Retrieved Feb 12, 2004, from

Lambert, L. (1998). Building leadership capacity in schools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

McEwan, E. (2003). 7 steps to effective instructional leadership. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corin Press.

McQuarrie, F., Wood, F. (1991, August). Designs on the job learning. Retrieved Feb 12, 2005, from

Newmann, F., Wehlage T. (1996). Authentic achievement: Restructuring schools for intellectual quality. San Francisco, CA:

Jossey-Bass. Patterson, W. (2003). Breaking out of our boxes. Phi Delta Kappan, 84, (8), 569-577.

Sergiovanni, T. (2001). The Principalship: A reflective practice. 5th ed. San Antonio, TX: Trinity Press.

Ucapan Terima Kasih:

Kepada Orang Tua Tersayang, Guru-guru, teman dan sahabat yang sama-sama ku kasihi, serta semua pihak yang tidak mungkin saya sebutkan satu-persatu, atas bantuannya baik moril maupun materil. Semoga Kebaikannya diblas dengan yang lebih baik oleh Sang Pencipta, Amin!,

Special Kepada Teh Evi K.Y. atas Foto-foto SMAN 1 nya.

Semoga Bermanfaat, Bersemangat dan Terima Kasih.

Kamis, 18 September 2008

BICS (Banjar International Cyber School)

Sekolah Bertaraf International

Jakarta International School
British International School

Sebuah Contoh dan Perbandingan

Di edit dan ditambah oleh:

Bpk .Endang Jaenudin S.Pd., Bpk Drs. Ahmad Sobana, Bpk. Drs. Nanang S.

(SMAN 1 Banjar, Jawa Barat. Indonesia)


Arip Nurahman

(Pendidikan Fisika, FPMIPA. Indonesia University of Education)


Follower Open Course Ware at MIT-Harvard University, U.S.A.

Jakarta International School

A tradition of educational excellence

For more than 50 years, Jakarta International School (JIS) has set the standard for international schooling in Indonesia and throughout the world by providing services of the highest quality to our students and to the communities we serve.

Founded specifically as an international school to meet the needs and interests of expatriate students living in Jakarta, JIS is a large, well-equipped school for students aged three through eighteen years, set on three beautiful campuses.

Our students enjoy first-class academic programs and a comprehensive array of sporting, cultural and performing arts activities. The academic and co-curricular choices available allow our students to explore interests and develop talents while preparing for future opportunities anywhere in the global community.

A unity of values from around the globe:

JIS is a place where people from almost 60 countries come together to share ideas, experiences and values. Faculty and students constantly test what they think they know, and acknowledge the importance and impact of experience and perspective. JIS students learn to challenge appropriately, to reflect on their choices, to adapt and to act intelligently.

Moving beyond tolerance to true acceptance of others and their ideas, students learn to recognize, respect and celebrate the differences and similarities among people. Each student is encouraged to celebrate his or her first language and culture while embracing a second and, in many cases, a third.

High school

Choice is an important element in our High School. Our students are given every opportunity to make choices and accept responsibility for their actions, preparing them better for the decisions and challenges of adult life.

JIS offers a wide selection of courses for students in grades 9-12. In addition to the JIS Diploma, students can choose to complete an International Baccalaureate Diploma, and/or an International Advanced Placement Diploma. Students who perform well in these international programs receive offers of admission from the best colleges and universities worldwide.

Students work closely with our experienced High School counselors to choose courses, set goals and build complete, individually-tailored programs incorporating academic and co-curricular activities, with the purpose of optimal university selection. Each student and his or her family, receives a great deal of care and attention during annual course selections and the college/university application process.

In an effort to provide a broad and balanced education, JIS offers a variety of choices for students interested in sports, athletics and the performing arts, as well as a host of clubs and activities aimed at providing something for every interest and level of ability.

Mission & philosophy

In response to their emerging maturity, we believe that our students should:

  • Be educated to work independently, to acquire knowledge and develop skills for a changing world, to think analytically, critically and creatively to achieve their full potential and to demonstrate a respect for learning;
  • Attain an international perspective, with a commitment to world citizenship and a sensitivity toward and appreciation of Indonesian and world cultures;
  • Respect self, others, the school and the environment;
  • Possess integrity, with a desire to serve others, an ability to make and accept responsibility for personal choices and a commitment to balanced physical and emotional health

In order to meet the challenge of developing these qualities in our diverse student body, we believe that the school should:

  • Establish and maintain recognized standards of academic excellence and social behavior;
  • Offer a comprehensive academic and co-curricular university preparatory program which is challenging, enjoyable, technologically current and purposeful;
  • Provide a variety of teaching methods that recognize the learning styles or our students and stress the acquisition of life-long learning skills; create a healthy, well-balanced environment in which respect and compassion thrive

British International School

Between 1993 and 1994, the school moved to its new purpose-designed campus in Bintaro, West Jakarta. Being just south-west of the city centre, the British International School campus provides a healthy environment where fresh air and open space abound.

The new premises and facilities enable the school to excel further in the range of opportunities and experiences that can be offered to its students. Designed by international consultants, the architecture is outstanding. It is modern with an Indonesian influence: spacious, well-planned and attractive in its country setting.

The inside of the school is as impressive as the architecture outside and provides a bright and airy atmosphere conducive to learning. Consequently, working and studying at BIS is a pleasure.

The site comprises three sections: Infant (including Pre-School), for three to seven year olds; Junior, for seven to eleven year olds; and Senior, for eleven to eighteen year olds.

The Primary and Secondary sections each house a sports hall and library. Other facilities include a well-equipped music department; a state-of-the-art theatre; a new modern foreign languages centre; an Olympic-size swimming pool with touch-pad time recording equipment; ample playing fields and tennis courts. All classrooms are air-conditioned and equipped with an LCD projector, interactive whiteboard and computers.

In addition to the Bintaro campus, a small self-contained unit in Pondok Indah provides an opportunity for pre-schoolers who live in this area, to join BIS.

All this serves to provide the type of environment which allows the school to deliver its aim, which is the highest possible standard of education to enable each child to realise his or her academic, social and physical potential and to develop aesthetic awareness, both as an individual and as a member of a society.

Model-Model Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional

Dikdasmen membuat rumusan 4 model pembinaan SBI tersebut yaitu :

(1) Model Sekolah Baru (Newly Developed),

(2) Model Pengembangan pada Sekolah yang Telah Ada (Existing School),

(3) Model Terpadu, dan

(4) Model Kemitraan.

Padahal kalau dilihat sebenarnya hanya ada dua model yaitu Model (1) Model Sekolah Baru dan Model (2) Model Sekolah yang Telah Ada. Dua lainnya hanyalah teknis pelaksanaannya saja. Dari dua model tersebut Dikdasmen sebenarnya hanya melakukan satu model rintisan yaitu Model (2) Model Pengembangan pada Sekolah yang Telah Ada (existing School) dan tidak memiliki atau berusaha untuk membuat model (1) Model Sekolah Baru.

Anehnya, buku Panduan Penyelenggaraan Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (SBI) yang dikeluarkan sebenarnya lebih mengacu pada Model (1) padahal yang dikembangkan saat ini semua adalah Model (2). Jelas bahwa sekolah yang ada tidak akan mungkin bisa memenuhi kriteria untuk menjadi sekolah SBI karena acuan yang dikeluarkan sebenarnya ditujukan bagi pendirian sekolah baru atau Model (1).

Sebagai contoh, jika sekolah yang ada sekarang ini diminta untuk memiliki guru berkategori hard science seperti Matematika, Fisika, Kimia, Biologi (dan nantinya diharapkan kategori soft science-nya juga menyusul) menggunakan bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa pengantar, atau memiliki tanah dengan luas minimal 15.000 m, dll persyaratan seperti dalam buku Panduan, maka jelas itu tidak akan mungkin dapat dipenuhi oleh sekolah yang ada.

Ini ibarat meminta kereta api untuk berjalan di jalan tol!

Sebagai ilustrasi, sedangkan guru bahasa Inggris di sekolah-sekolah ‘favorit’ kita saja hanya sedikit yang memiliki TOEFL > 500, apalagi jika itu dipersyaratkan bagi guru-guru mata pelajaran hard science. Maka itu jelas tidak mungkin. Ini berarti Dikdasmen tidak mampu untuk menerjemahkan model yang ditetapkannya sendiri sehingga membuat Dikdasmen berresiko gagal total dalam mencapai tujuannya.

Konsep ini berangkat dari asumsi yang salah tentang penguasaan Bhs. Inggris sebagai bahasa pengantar dan hubungannya dengan nilai TOEFL. Penggagas mengasumsikan bahwa untuk dapat mengajar hard science dalam pengantar bahasa Inggris maka guru harus memiliki TOEFL> 500. Padahal tidak ada hubungan antara nilai TOEFL dengan kemampuan mengajar hard science dalam bhs Inggris. Skor TOEFL yang tinggi belum menjamin kefasihan dan kemampuan orang dalam menyampaikan gagasan dalam bahasa Inggris.

Banyak orang yang memiliki nilai TOEFL<500> 500 . Singkatnya, menjadikan nilai TOEFL sebagai patokan keberhasilan pengajaran hard science bertaraf internasional adalah asumsi yang keliru. TOEFL lebih cenderung mengukur kompetensi seseorang, padahal yang dibutuhkan guru sekolah bilingual adalah performance- nya, dan performance ini banyak dipengaruhi faktor-faktor non-linguistic. TOEFL bukanlah ukuran kompetensi pedagogic.
(Satria Dharma, Direktur The Centre for the Betterment of Education (CBE))

Everything about International Education

Add & Edited by:

Arip Nurahman

Indonesia University of Education

From Wikipedia

Education encompasses both the teaching and learning of knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency. It thus focuses on the cultivation of skills, trades or professions, as well as mental, moral & aesthetic development.[1]

Formal education consists of systematic instruction, teaching and training by professional teachers. This consists of the application of pedagogy and the development of curricula. In a liberal education tradition, teachers draw on many different disciplines for their lessons, including psychology, philosophy, information technology, linguistics, biology, and sociology. Teachers in specialized professions such as astrophysics, law, or zoology may teach only in a narrow area, usually as professors at institutions of higher learning. There is much specialist instruction in fields of trade for those who want specific skills, such as required to be a pilot, for example. Finally, there is an array of educational opportunity in the informal sphere- for this reason, society subsidizes institutions such as museums and libraries. Informal education also includes knowledge and skills learned and refined during the course of life, including education that comes from experience in practicing a profession.

The right to education is a fundamental human right. Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. At world level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.


Systems of formal education

Education systems are established to provide education and training, often for children and the young. A curriculum defines what students should know, understand and be able to do as the result of education. A teaching profession delivers teaching which enables learning, and a system of policies, regulations, examinations, structures and funding enables teachers to teach to the best of their abilities. Sometimes education systems can be used to promote doctrines or ideals as well as knowledge, which is known as social engineering. This can lead to political abuse of the system, particularly in totalitarian states and government.

· Education is a broad concept, referring to all the experiences in which students can learn something.

· Instruction refers to the intentional facilitating of learning toward identified goals, delivered either by an instructor or other forms.

· Teaching refers to the actions of a real live instructor designed to impart learning to the student.

· Training refers to learning with a view toward preparing learners with specific knowledge, skills, or abilities that can be applied immediately upon completion.

Primary education

Main article: Primary education

Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or seven years of schooling starting at the age of 5 or 6, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around 70% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising.[2]. Under the Education for All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate middle schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior schools.

Secondary education

Main article: Secondary education

In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education consists of the second years of formal education that occur during adolescence.[citation needed] It is characterised by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school) for adults.[citation needed] Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States and Canada primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1-13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession.

Higher education

Main article: Higher education

Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium[citation needed]. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees.

Higher education includes teaching, research and social services activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Higher education in that country generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy

Adult education

Lifelong, or adult, education has become widespread in many countries.[citation needed] Adult education takes on many forms, ranging from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning.

Alternative education

Main article: Alternative education

Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term which may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education). This may include not only forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability), but also forms of education designed for a general audience and employing alternative educational philosophies and methods.

Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education. While some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education[citation needed]. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools, independent schools, and home-based learning vary widely, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community[citation needed].

Emotional/Human education

As academic education is more and more the norm and standard, companies and individuals are looking less at normal education as to what is deemed a good solid educated person/worker. Most well-educated and successful entrepreneurs have high communication skills with humanistic and warm "emotional intelligence".

In certain places, especially in the United States, the term alternative may largely refer to forms of education catering to "at risk" students, as it is, for example, in this definition drafted by the Massachusetts Department of Education. [3]



Main articles: Curriculum and List of academic disciplines

An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university, or via some other such method. Functionally, disciplines are usually defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and by the learned societies to which their practitioners belong.[citation needed] Professors say schooling is 80% psychological, 20% physical effort.[citation needed]

Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.[4]

Learning modalities

There has been a great deal of work on learning styles over the last two decades. Dunn and Dunn[5] focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli[6] recommended varying teaching strategies. Howard Gardner[7] identified individual talents or aptitudes in his Multiple Intelligences theories. Based on the works of Jung, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter[8] focused on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. The work of David Kolb and Anthony Gregorc's Type Delineator[9] follows a similar but more simplified approach.

It is currently fashionable to divide education into different learning "modes". The learning modalities[10] are probably the most common:[11]

· Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities.

· Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned.

· Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information.

It is claimed that, depending on their preferred learning modality, different teaching techniques have different levels of effectiveness.[12] A consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a variety of teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them.[13]


Teachers need the ability to understand a subject well enough to convey its essence to a new generation of students. The goal is to establish a sound knowledge base on which students will be able to build as they are exposed to different life experiences. The passing of knowledge from generation to generation allows students to grow into useful members of society. Good teachers can translate information, good judgment, experience and wisdom into relevant knowledge that a student can understand, retain and pass to others. As a profession, teaching has very high levels of Work-Related Stress (WRS)[14] which are listed as amongst the highest of any profession in some countries, such as the United Kingdom. The degree of this problem is becoming increasingly recognized and support systems are put into place.[15]


Main article: Educational technology

Technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers and mobile phones are being widely used in developed countries both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education). This gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging. Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students, including Multimedia, and provides new ways to engage students, such as Virtual learning environments. Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. Technology is also being used in the assessment of students. One example is the Audience Response System (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a “diverse set of tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information.”[16] These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. There is increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve education at all levels, in both formal and non-formal settings.[17] Older ICT technologies, such as radio and television, have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning, although print remains the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries.[18]

The use of computers and the Internet is still in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access. Usually, various technologies are used in combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. For example, the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri Lanka.[19] The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, online programming.[20] Similarly, the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print, recorded audio and video, broadcast radio and television, and audio conferencing technologies.[21]

The term "computer-assisted learning" (CAL) has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology in teaching.


Main article: History of education

The history of education according to Dieter Lenzen, president of the Freie Universität Berlin 1994 "began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770". Education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before. Education was the natural response of early civilizations to the struggle of surviving and thriving as a culture.[citation needed] Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on.[citation needed] The evolution of culture, and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge.[citation needed] In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially.[citation needed] When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating, trading, gathering food, religious practices, etc, formal education, and schooling, eventually followed.[citation needed] Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC.[citation needed]


Main articles: Philosophy of education and Epistemology

The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, nature and ideal content of education. Related topics include knowledge itself, the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject, problems of authority, and the relationship between education and society.[citation needed] At least since Locke's time, the philosophy of education has been linked to theories of developmental psychology and human development.[citation needed]

Fundamental purposes that have been proposed for education include:

· The enterprise of civil society depends on educating people to become responsible, thoughtful and enterprising citizens. This is an intricate, challenging task requiring deep understanding of ethical principles, moral values, political theory, aesthetics, and economics, not to mention an understanding of who children are, in themselves and in society.[citation needed]

· Progress in every practical field depends on having capacities that schooling can develop. Education is thus a means to foster the individual's, society's, and even humanity's future development and prosperity. Emphasis is often put on economic success in this regard.[citation needed]

· One's individual development and the capacity to fulfill one's own purposes can depend on an adequate preparation in childhood. Education can thus attempt to give a firm foundation for the achievement of personal fulfillment. The better the foundation that is built, the more successful the child will be. Simple basics in education can carry a child far.[citation needed]

A central tenet of education typically includes “the imparting of knowledge.” At a very basic level, this purpose ultimately deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge.[citation needed] The branch of philosophy that addresses these and related issues is known as epistemology. This area of study often focuses on analyzing the nature and variety of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth and belief.

While the term, knowledge, is often used to convey this general purpose of education, it can also be viewed as part of a continuum of knowing that ranges from very specific data to the highest levels. Seen in this light, the continuum may be thought to consist of a general hierarchy of overlapping levels of knowing.[citation needed] Students must be able to connect new information to a piece of old information to be better able to learn, understand, and retain information.[citation needed] This continuum may include notions such as data, information, knowledge, wisdom, and realization.

The ideal or holistic education [Cf: Conceptual Stress-Understanding and Management: Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar] is conscious evolutionary transformation that aims at holistic health i.e. simultaneous welfare of one and all. This requires conscious development of fitness of one's body, refinements of instincts, broadening and profoundness of emotions, blossoming of intelligence and liberating perspective of universal oneness. Besides, cognitive, affective and psychomotor the productive domain also must be nurtured for this.


Main article: Educational psychology

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists.[citation needed] Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities.[citation needed]

Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology.[citation needed] Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management.[citation needed] Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences.[citation needed] In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks (Lucas, Blazek, & Raley, 2006)

Economic implications of Education

Main article: Economics of education

It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth. [23] In theory poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries.[citation needed] But economists argue that if the gap in education between a rich and a poor nation is too large, as is the case between the poorest and the richest nations in the world, the transfer of these technologies that drive economic growth becomes difficult, thus the economies of the world's poorest nations stagnate.[citation needed]

Sociology of education

Main article: Sociology of education

The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and forces affect educational processes and outcomes, and vice versa. By many, education is understood to be a means of overcoming handicaps, achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and status for all (Sargent 1994). Learners may be motivated by aspirations for progress and betterment. Education is perceived as a place where children can develop according to their unique needs and potentialities.[24] The purpose of education can be to develop every individual to their full potential.[citation needed] The understanding of the goals and means of educational socialization processes differs according to the sociological paradigm used.

Education in developing countries

In some developing countries, the number and seriousness of the problems faced are naturally greater.[citation needed] People in more remote or agrarian areas are sometimes unaware of the importance of education. However, many countries have an active Ministry of Education, and in many subjects, such as foreign language learning, the degree of education is actually much higher than in industrialized countries; for example, it is not at all uncommon for students in many developing countries to be reasonably fluent in multiple foreign languages, whereas this is much more of a rarity in the supposedly "more educated" countries where much of the population is in fact monolingual.

There is also economic pressure from those parents who prioritize their children's making money in the short term over any long-term benefits of education.[citation needed] Recent studies on child labor and poverty have suggested that when poor families reach a certain economic threshold where families are able to provide for their basic needs, parents return their children to school.[citation needed] This has been found to be true, once the threshold has been breached, even if the potential economic value of the children's work has increased since their return to school.[citation needed] Teachers are often paid less than other similar professions.[citation needed]

A lack of good universities, and a low acceptance rate for good universities, is evident in countries with a relatively high population density.[citation needed] In some countries, there are uniform, over structured, inflexible centralized programs from a central agency that regulates all aspects of education.

· Due to globalization, increased pressure on students in curricular activities

· Removal of a certain percentage of students for improvisation of academics (usually practised in schools, after 10th grade)

India is now developing technologies that will skip land based phone and internet lines. Instead, India launched EDUSAT, an education satellite that can reach more of the country at a greatly reduced cost. There is also an initiative started by a group out of MIT and supported by several major corporations to develop a $100 laptop. The laptops should be available by late 2006 or 2007. The laptops, sold at cost, will enable developing countries to give their children a digital education, and to close the digital divide across the world.

In Africa, NEPAD has launched an "e-school programme" to provide all 600,000 primary and high schools with computer equipment, learning materials and internet access within 10 years. Private groups, like The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, are working to give more individuals opportunities to receive education in developing countries through such programs as the Perpetual Education Fund. An International Development Agency project called, started with the support of American President Bill Clinton, uses the Internet to allow co-operation by individuals on issues of social development.


Education is becoming increasingly international. Not only are the materials becoming more influenced by the rich international environment, but exchanges among students at all levels are also playing an increasingly important role. In Europe, for example, the Socrates-Erasmus Programme stimulates exchanges across European universities. Also, the Soros Foundation provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Some scholars argue that, regardless of whether one system is considered better or worse than another, experiencing a different way of education can often be considered to be the most important, enriching element of an international learning experience.[25]

See also

Main articles: Glossary of education-related terms, List of basic education topics, List of education articles by country, and List of education topics


  1. ^ educating - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  2. ^ UNESCO, Education For All Monitoring Report 2008, Net Enrollment Rate in primary education
  3. ^ Definition of Alternative Education From the Massachusetts Department of Education
  4. ^ Examples of subjects...
  5. ^ Dunn and Dunn
  6. ^ Biographer of Renzulli
  7. ^ Thomas Armstrong's website detailing Multiple Intelligences
  8. ^ Keirsey web-site
  9. ^ Type Delineator description
  10. ^ Swassing, R. H., Barbe, W. B., & Milone, M. N. (1979). The Swassing-Barbe Modality Index: Zaner-Bloser Modality Kit. Columbus, OH: Zaner-Bloser.
  11. ^ Varied Learning Modes
  12. ^ Barbe, W. B., & Swassing, R. H., with M. N. Milone. (1979). Teaching through modality strengths: Concepts and practices. Columbus, OH: Zaner-Bloser.
  13. ^ Learning modality description from the Learning Curve website
  14. ^ Work-Related Stress in teaching
  15. ^ Teacher Support for England & Wales
  16. ^ Blurton, Craig. "New Directions of ICT-Use in Education". Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  17. ^ ICT in Education
  18. ^ Potashnik, M. and Capper, J.. "Distance Education:Growth and Diversity". Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  19. ^ Taghioff, Daniel. "Seeds of Consensus—The Potential Role for Information and Communication Technologies in Development.". Retrieved on 2003-10-12.
  20. ^ Open University of the United Kingdom Official website
  21. ^ Indira Gandhi National Open University Official website
  22. ^ Finn, J. D., Gerber, S. B., Boyd-Zaharias, J. (2005). Small classes in the early grades, academic achievement, and graduating from high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 214-233.
  23. ^ Hanushek, Economic Outcomes and School Quality
  24. ^ Schofield, K. (1999). "The Purposes of Education", Queensland State Education: 2010, [Online] URL: [Accessed 2002, Oct 28]
  25. ^ Dubois, H.F.W., Padovano, G., & Stew, G. (2006) Improving international nurse training: an American–Italian case study. International Nursing Review, 53(2): 110–116.

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Everything About International Education
By: Arip Nurahman
Indonesia University of Education

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