Kamis, 18 September 2008

Jurnal Pendidikan International Kota Banjar

Banjar International Education Journal

International Students

Add & Edited By:

Bapak Endang J. S.Pd., Bapak Drs. Ahmad S. dan Bapak Drs. Nanang S.

SMAN 1 Banjar, Jawa Barat

Arip Nurahman
Department of Physics
Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Indonesia University of Education

and

Follower Open Course Ware at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, USA
Department of Physics
http://web.mit.edu/physics/
http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/index.htm
&
Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering
http://web.mit.edu/aeroastro/www/
http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Aeronautics-and-Astronautics/index.htm















Abstract

The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb "studēre", meaning "to direct one's zeal at"; hence a student could be described as 'one who directs zeal at a subject'. In its widest use, "student" is used for anyone who is learning


Introduction

International variations

Students in rural Sudan, 2002

Students in rural Sudan, 2002
Over one thousand students in uniform during an assembly at a secondary school in Singapore.

Over one thousand students in uniform during an assembly at a secondary school in Singapore.

Australia

In Australia, after Kindergarten, "year one", "year two", etc. through to "year twelve" are in most common usage. Children in primary and secondary school are all referred to as students. The term student is used for all learners including primary school, secondary school and university/TAFE.

Canada

In Canada, special terms are occasionally used. In English provinces, the high school (known as Academy or secondary school) years can be referred to simply as first, second, third, fourth and fifth year. Some areas call it by grade such as Grade 10, Grade 11 and Grade 12. Provincial variations can include Grade 9 in High School, though most in most provinces, Grades 10 through 12 are considered High School, with Grades 7 through 9 called "Junior High." In university, students are classified as first-, second-, third-, or fourth-year students. In some occasions, they can be called Senior Ones, Twos, Threes, and Fours. First years are commonly known as "frosh", and the first week of university for first year students is commonly known as Frosh week.

Continental Europe

In Belgian universities, first-year students are called schacht in Flemish, or bleu in French. In Macedonian they are called бруцош.

United Kingdom and Ireland

The term student is usually reserved for people studying at University level in the UK. Children studying at school are called pupils.

In England and Wales, teenagers in the last two years of school are called "sixth formers". If pupils follow the average pattern of school attendance, pupils will be in the "lower sixth" between the ages of 16 and 17, and the "upper sixth" between 17 and 18. They "go up" to University after the upper sixth.

In Scotland pupils sit Highers at the end of fifth year (when aged 16-17) after which it is possible for them to gain entry to university. However, many do not achieve the required grades and remain at school for sixth year. Even among those that do achieve the necessary grades it is common to remain at school and undertake further study (i.e. other subjects or Advanced Highers) and then start university at the same time as their friends and peers.

At universities in the United Kingdom and Ireland the term "fresher" is used to describe new students who are just beginning their first year. It would be unusual to call someone a fresher after their first few weeks at University. There is little derogatory connotation to this name in the UK, except for an occasional reference to "freshers" in a tone that implies naivety. More commonly, it will be used in a kindly fashion. For instance, a University official might ask a student if they are a fresher without any hint of a put down.

The term "first year" is the more commonly used, and connotation free, term for students in their first year. The week at the start of a new year is called "Freshers' Week", with a programme of special events to welcome new students; some universities, however, are attempting to drop the connotative associations of "freshers' week" by renaming it "welcome week".[citation needed] An undergraduate in the last year of study before graduation is generally known as a "finalist", or simply a third year (in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland ) or a fourth year (in Scotland and the Republic of Ireland).

A student in the United Kingdom

The ancient Scottish University of St Andrews uses the terms "bejant" for a first year (from the French "bec-jaune" – "yellow beak", "fledgling"). Second years are called "semi-bejants", third years are known as "tertians", and fourth years, or others in their final year of study, are called "magistrands".

For pupils, first of all is primary school and it starts off with Reception (similar to Kindergarten) and then move on to "year one, Year two" and so on until "year six". Children join secondary school in year 7 (when they are 11-12 year olds) up to year 11 and then after is sixth form, whereas a student entering a fee-paying school (usually a year later) would join the "third form"- equivalent to year 9- many schools have an alternate name for first years, some with a derogatory basis, but in others acting merely as a description- for example "shells"(non-derogatory) or "grubs"(derogatory.)

United States

Before first year

Some schools use the term "prefrosh" or "pre-frosh" to describe their newly admitted students. Schools often offer a campus preview weekend for prefroshes to know the schools better. A student is considered a prefrosh until he or she registers for the first class.

First year

A freshman (slang alternatives that are usually derogatory in nature include "fish", "fresher", "frosh", "newbie", "freshie", "snotter", "fresh-meat", etc.) is a first-year student in college, university or high school. The less-common[citation needed] gender-neutral synonym "first-year student" exists; the variation "freshperson" is rare.[citation needed]

In many traditions there is a remainder of the ancient (boarding, pre-commuting) tradition of fagging. He may also be subjected to a period of hazing or ragging as a pledge(r) or rookie, especially if joining a fraternity/sorority or certain other clubs, mainly athletic teams. For example, many high schools have initiation methods for freshmen, including, but not limited to, Freshman Duct-taped Throw, Freshman races, Freshman Orientation, Freshman Freshening (referring to poor hygiene among freshmen), and the Freshman Spread.

Even after that, specific rules may apply depending on the school's traditions (e.g., wearing a distinctive beanie), non-observance of which may result in punishment in which the paddle may come into play.

Second year

In the U.S., a sophomore is a second-year student. Folk etymology has it that the word means "wise fool"; consequently "sophomoric" means "pretentious, bombastic, inflated in style or manner; immature, crude, superficial" (according to the Oxford English Dictionary). It appears to be most likely formed from Greek "sophos", meaning "wise", and "moros" meaning "foolish", although it may also have separately originated from the word "sophumer", an obsolete variant of "sophism"[1]. Outside of the U.S. the term "sophomore" is rarely used, with second-year students simply called "second years".

Academic procession during the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony.

Academic procession during the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony.

Post-second year

In the U.S. a "junior" is a student in the penultimate (usually third) year and a "senior" a student in the last (usually fourth) year of college, university, or high school. A college student who takes more than the normal number of years to graduate is sometimes referred to as a "super senior".[2] The term "underclassman" is used to refer collectively to freshmen and sophomores, and "upperclassman" to refer collectively to juniors and seniors, sometimes even sophomores. The term "middler" is used to describe a third-year student of a school (generally college) which offers five years of study. In this situation, the fourth and fifth years would be referred to as "junior" and "senior" years, respectively.

Mature students

Main article: Mature student

A mature, or adult student in tertiary education (at a university or a college) is normally classified as an (undergraduate) student who is at least 21 - 23 years old at the start of their course and usually having been out of the education system for at least two years. Mature students can also include students who have been out of the education system for decades, or students with no secondary education. Mature students also make up graduate and postgraduate populations by demographic of age.

Student pranks

Main article: Student prank

University students have a long association with pranks and japes.[3][4][5][6][7] These can often involve petty crime, such as the theft of traffic cones and other public property,[8] or hoaxes. It is also not uncommon for students from one school to steal or deface the mascot of a rival school.[9] In fact, pranks play such a significant part in student culture that numerous books have been published that focus on the issue.[10][11]Pranks may reflect current events[12], be a form of protest or revenge, or have no other purpose than for the enjoyment of the prank itself. A recent report has been released focusing on the misbehaviour of university students. The report, Studentification: A Guide to Opportunities, Challenges and Practice, by Universities UK, focuses on six British universities as case studies.

Other terms

  • A student who is repeating a grade level of schooling due to poor grades is sometimes referred to as having been "held back".
  • The term pupil (originally a Latin term for a minor as the ward of an adult guardian etc.) is used in British primary and secondary schools instead of "student", but once attending higher education such as sixth-form college etc, the term "student" is standard.
  • The United States military academies use only numerical terms, except there are colloquial expressions used in everyday speech. In order from first year to fourth year, students in these institutions are officially referred to as "fourth-class", "third-class", "second-class", and "first-class" cadets or midshipmen. Unofficially, other terms are used, for example at the United States Military Academy, freshman are called "plebes," sophomores are called "yearlings" or "yuks," juniors are called "cows," and seniors are called "firsties." Some universities also use numerical terms to identify classes; students enter as "first-years" and graduate as "fourth-years" (or, in some cases, "fifth-years", "sixth-years", etc).
  • Freshers' Flu refers to the generic illness that many new students get during the first few weeks of starting the first year. This is often attributed to viral/bacterial diseases being carried by students from other regions of the country/world, to which some have no immunity.[citation needed]

  • In the United States a "gunner" is an overly competitive student, typically in law school or medical school. Calling someone a gunner is usually highly offensive[citation needed]. A gunner is also overly ambitious and often excitedly volunteers oral answers in class that are, by turns, incorrect, off-topic, or specifically designed to demonstrate the questionable "intellectual" prowess of the person supplying them. These questions are often prefaced with phrases like "A cursory literature search revealed ... " A gunner will compromise his or her peer relationships in order to obtain recognition and praise from his or her instructors and superiors, often by directly harming or attempting to harm the academic well-being of said peers.[13]

Idiomatic use

"Freshman" and "sophomore" are sometimes used figuratively, almost exclusively in the United States, to refer to a first or second effort ("the singer's sophomore album"), or to a politician's first or second term in office ("freshman senator") or an athlete's first or second year on a professional sports team. "Junior" and "senior" are not used in this figurative way to refer to third and fourth years or efforts, because of those words' broader meanings of "younger" and "older". (A junior senator is therefore not one who is in his or her third term of office, but merely one who has not been in the Senate as long as the other senator from his or her state.)


Contents


International students are students, usually in early adulthood, who study in foreign educational institutions. While most universities have official student exchange programs, some well-funded high schools have them, too. Although some students travel abroad mainly to improve their language skills, others travel to advance their specialized studies. Still others study abroad because suitable tertiary education is either in short supply or unavailable altogether in their home countries. In addition, in many parts of the world, a foreign degree, especially if earned from certain countries, is honored more than a local one.

Prospective international students are usually required to sit for language tests, such as IELTS[1] & TOEFL[2](English speaking education), DELF[3] (French speaking education) or DELE[4] (Spanish speaking education), before they are admitted. Tests notwithstanding, while some international students already possess an excellent command of the local language upon arrival, some find their language ability, considered excellent domestically, inadequate for the purpose of understanding lectures, and/or of conveying oneself fluently in rapid conversations.

Many countries force international students to pay higher tuition than citizens of the country. This discrimination is usually justified by the argument that the students' parents do not pay taxes in the country. The fact that a large number of international students decide to settle in the country where they are studying and become productive citizens is, however, ignored in such cases.

Aspek-aspek yang dikembangkan pada Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional adalah

standar kompetensi lulusan standar Internasional,
kurikulum standar internasional,
PBM standar internasional,
SDM standar internasional,
fasilitas standar internasional,
manajemen standar internasional,
pembiayaan standar internasional,
penilaian standar internasional.

Standar kompetensi lulusan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional adalah keberhasilan lulusan yang melanjutkan ke sekolah internasional dalam negeri maupun di luar negeri dengan tetap berkepribadian bangsa Indonesia,

menguasai dan terampil menggunakan ICT,
mampu debat dengan Bahasa Inggris,

terdapat juara internasional dalam bidang:
olahraga,
kesenian,
kesehatan,
budaya, dll,

mampu menyelesaikan, tugas–tugas dan mengumpulkan portofolio dengan baik,

mampu meyampaikan/mendemonstrasikan tugas-tugas dari guru/sekolah,

mampu melaksanakan eksprimen dalam pengembangan pe­ngetahuan dan keterampilan,

mampu menemukan / mem­buktikan pengalaman bela­jarnya dengan berbagai karya,

mampu menulis dan mengarang dengan bahasa asing atau dengan bahasa Indonesia yang baik dan benar,

memperoleh kejuaraan olimpiade internasional dalam bidang:
matematika,
fisika,
biologi,
kimia,
stronomi, dan atau lainnya
Iditunjukkan dengan sertifikat internasional),

NUAN rata-rata tinggi (> 7,5),

memiliki kemampuan penguasaan teknologi dasar,

melakukan kerjasama dengan berbagai pihak, baik secara individual, kelompok/kolektif (lokal, nasional, regional, dan global) dengan bukti ada piagam kerjasama atau MoU yang dilakukan oleh lulusan,

memiliki dokumen lulusan tentang karya tulis, persuratan, administrasi sekolah, penelitian, dll dalam bahasa asing atau dengan bahasa Indonesia yang baik dan benar,

memiliki dokumen dan pelaksanaan, pengelolaan kegiatan belajar secara baik (ada perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan, pengkoordinasian, dan evaluasi) dari lulusan, menguasai budaya bangsa lain, memiliki dokumen karya tulis, nilai, dll tentang pemahaman budaya bangsa lain dari lulusan,

memiliki pemahaman terhadap kepedulian dengan lingkungan sekitar sekolah, baik lingkungan sosial, fisik maupun budaya,

memiliki berbagai karya-karya lain dari lulusan yang bermanfaat bagi dirinya maupun orang lain, bangsa, dll, dan terdapat usaha-usaha dan atau karya yang mencerminkan jiwa kewirausahaan lulusan.

Begitu banyak kriteria yang harus dimiliki oleh SISWA SEKOLAH BERTARAF INTERNATIONAL, menurut pengalaman penulis kriteria ini memang sangat sulit sekali diraih oleh tiap individu pada diri siswa. Namun tidak ada yang tidak mungkin bila kita terus berusaha dengan tekun dan optimal serta sistematis.

Pengalaman Penulis ketika berusaha bagaimana untuk menjadi seorang SISWA SEKOLAH BERTARAF INTERNATIONAL? adalah tidak serumit dan sekomplikasi seperti yang disebutkan dalam kriteria tadi.
KUNCINYA ADALAH:

1. KEJUJURAN YANG KONSISTEN
2. PENGUASAAN BAHASA INGGRIS YANG MATANG
3. PENGUASAAN ICT (TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI & KOMUNIKASI) YANG MEMADAI
4. MAMPU MENULIS DAN MEMPUBLIKASIKAN KARYA-KARYA ILMIAH

Cukuplah 4 keterampilan awal ini yang harus dikembangkan dalam diri SISWA, dengan KEJUJURAN maka potensi sisiwa yang sesungguhnya akan muncul. Mengusai Bahasa Inggris adalah awal atau kunci pembuka ilmu-ilmu pengetahuan pendukung lainnya.
Mampu memanfaatkan ICT maka SISWA mampu menjalin relasi dengan berbagai orang dari belahan dunia manapun.
Terampil menulis dan mempublikasikan Karya-karya Ilmiah, siswa akan mendapat kepercayaan luas dari masyarakat Luas, terutama oleh masyarakat AKADEMIS.
Dengan niat yang sungguh-sungguh dan keyakinan semoga setiap jiwa-jiwa yang ingin menggapai tujuan akan dibimbing oleh DIA YANG MAHA DI ATAS SEGALANYA.


Criticisms

International student programs have over the years encountered a number of criticisms, both from the host countries and from the international students themselves. While some of the criticisms are well-founded, others are based on misperceptions or even racism.

International student programs can be a politically sensitive issue in the host countries. Opponents of the programs fear that international students would take the limited university placements away from local students. Proponents of the programs counter this belief by arguing that the high fees paid by international students enable universities to maintain, or even increase, placements for local students.

It is not unusual for international students to encounter language problems in the host countries. Despite the pre-admission language tests — which might give the students a false sense of mastery over a foreign language — students often find it difficult to understand the coursework, and some might feel that their lecturers are unhelpful in explaining the coursework to them. Academics, under pressure from cash-strapped university authorities to retain international students, sometimes make the courses easier, to the resentment of many local students. It has been speculated that language difficulties may contribute to the problem of plagiarism, particularly in the form of using essay mills.[5]

Finally, many would-be employers, especially those within the host countries, find some former international students have unsatisfactory language abilities, despite having earned university degrees.

A major drawback of International Students Programs is the reluctance of universities, in the host country, to face immigration limitations and expose them clearly to their incoming foreign students.

  • They may have difficulties in obtaining a long term work visa.
  • They may face as a consequence large salary gaps in comparison to their fellow nationals.
  • The tuition fees may be too high with respect to their work prospects.
  • They may be barred from high profile jobs where citizenship is a prerequisite.

See also

Organizations


See also

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1 komentar:

uii profile mengatakan...

saya mahasiswa dari Universitas Islam Indonesia
Nice share, terimakasih ya infonya :)