Irene K. S. & Nisa H. P.
-"Mengantarkan Siswa Kota Banjar Menjuarai WSDC"-
-"Ingin Juara, Makanya Berlatih"-
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Excellence in debating. International understanding. Freedom of speech.
|The World Schools Debating Championships (WSDC) is a truly global competition for high school debaters. The Championships take place each year in a different country, hosted by a national debating body. Recent venues include Sydney, London, Johannesburg, Singapore, Lima and in 2006 Cardiff, Wales.|| |
All debates take place in English. Each country can submit a squad of 3-5 students under 19 in full time education in that country to debate social, moral and political issues.
Past patrons of the Championships include Tony Blair and Nelson Mandela.
|© World Schools Debating Championships 2008. |
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World Schools Debating Championships
In recent years, the championships have involved teams from around 35 nations each year.
The championships were first held in 1988 in Australia, as part of the Australian Bicentenary celebrations. Members of the Australian Debating Federation were aware that the World Universities Debating Championship was to be hosted by the University of Sydney in January that year, but no similar event for high school students existed at the time. However the rapid growth of the university championships since its founding in 1981 showed the potential for international debating competitions. Christopher Erskine took on the task of organising the first world schools championships, which was then called the Bicentennial International School Students Debating Championships. Six countries competed in the inaugural tournament – Australia, Canada, England, Hong Kong, New Zealand and the United States. The teams flew into different cities in Australia for their first debates, before meeting-up in Canberra for the second week of the competition. The event was ultimately won by Canada, who defeated Australia in the Grand Final.
The success of the 1988 event saw Canada offer to host the second championship two years later in 1990. That year, the event was called the World Debating Championships. Seven teams took part in the 1990 competition, with first-time participants Scotland emerging as champions.
In 1991, the championships were held in Edinburgh, and the event took on its present name of the World Schools Debating Championships. Since then, the championships have rapidly grown in size.
Each country is entitled to enter one team. As with some other international competitions such as the FIFA World Cup, the nations of the United Kingdom are allowed to take part individually, as are dependent territories (such as Bermuda) and special regions of some countries (such as Hong Kong).
All debates in the championship are in English. This is for practical reasons, but it means that many countries debate in what is for them a foreign language. This has not stopped a number of these teams being very successful. Pakistan, for example, has reached the Grand Final twice; while Argentina, Peru, Greece and Israel have all reached the semi-finals. Special awards have been introduced for the highest-ranked teams made-up of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) and English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) speakers.
To show that debate is universal, hosts in non-English-speaking nations have often showcased demonstration (non-competition) debates in their own language during the championships. A notable example was in Lima in 2003, where the teams from Argentina and Peru gave a demonstration debate in Spanish (but in the World Schools style) in the Congress of Peru chamber.
During the late-1990s, a significant number of countries from Central Europe and Eastern Europe joined the championship. These countries, formerly part of the Soviet bloc during the Cold War, were introduced to school debate in the early-1990s through the Open Society Institute's programmes. These teams have been regular competitors and have frequently won the special awards for teams from non-English-speaking nations.
Since 2000, the competition has also been joined by a growing number of teams from Asia. Pakistan, Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia had already been regular competitors, but by the mid-2000s, almost the entire Indian subcontinent had become involved, as have the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, South Korea, Mongolia and Japan. Singapore and Pakistan have both been runners-up twice, but so far the champions have always come from Great Britain, Ireland, North America or Oceania.
World Schools Debating Championship debates use a special format known as 'World Schools Style Debating'. This is a combination of the British Parliamentary and Australian formats, designed to meet the needs of the tournament. Each debate comprises eight speeches delivered by two three-member teams (the Proposition and the Opposition). Each speaker delivers an eight-minute speech; then both teams deliver a "reply speech" lasting four minutes, with the last word being reserved for the Proposition. Between the end of the first and the beginning of the last minute of an eight-minute speech, the opposing party may offer "points of information". The speaker may refuse these, but should take at least one or two points during his or her speech.
The style of debate was originally a compromise and not used apart from the championship. However, the style has since been embraced by many countries for their national competitions, including Australia, Argentina, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, South Africa, Slovenia, Singapore and South Korea.
The WSDC normally takes place over the course of ten days. Each national team competes in eight preliminary debates: four prepared debates (the motion having been announced a few weeks before the start of the tournament) and four impromptu debates (for which teams have one hour to prepare). Once the eight preliminary rounds have been completed, the 16 best teams compete in knock-out debates (known as the Octofinals) culminating in a Grand Final. For each debate, three judges (or more in later rounds) mark each debater on his or her style, content and strategy.
A notable difference between WSDC and the World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championships – the other major international competition of its type – is that WSDC's primary focus is on the ranking of each country's team as opposed to each individual participant's ranking.
The World Schools Debating Council
The World Schools Debating Championships is governed by the World Schools Debating Council, made up of representatives of each of the countries who participate in the championships. Decisions are made by democratic votes of the Council members (though only representatives of countries who have entered teams in at least two of the past three WSDCs may vote on amendments to the championship rules). The Council decides which countries will host the tournament, monitors and revises the WSDC rules, and elects an Executive Committee to handle matters such as adjudication, language issues, education and finance. The current Chairperson of the Executive Committee is the founder of the championships, Christopher Erskine of Australia.
There is a Charter which contains the Aims of the championship and three basic principles. The principles ensure that there is no censorship of motions for debate, and that all teams take part on an equal basis. All participants and all hosts must agree to abide by the Charter before taking part. A consequence is that a country which will not allow particular teams to enter the country is unable to host. The team from Israel, for example, is unable to enter several of the countries taking part, and those countries are currently unable to host the championship. By contrast, Israel itself permits all teams to enter its country, and was therefore able to host the championship in 1998.
Charter of the World Schools Debating Championships
- To achieve excellence in debating
- To encourage debating throughout the world
- To promote international understanding
- To promote free speech
In order to further these aims, all participating countries agree that:
- The team of any participating country may be required to debate any issue.
- The team of any participating country may be required to debate against the team of any other participating country.
- The team of any participating country is entitled to take part in the Championships on the same basis as any other participating country's team.
The winner of the Best Individual Speaker award at the World Schools Debating Championships was chosen though a separate public speaking competition up to 1997. From 1998 onwards, the best speaker has been determined based on the average scores awarded to each individual debater by judges over the eight preliminary rounds (only debaters who speak in at least four of the eight preliminary rounds are eligible for the award).
|2008||Jennifer Savage (New Zealand)|
|2007||Kaerlin McCormick (Australia)|
|2006||Jamie Susskind (England)|
|2005||Julia Fetherston (Australia)|
|2003||Julia Fetherston (Australia)|
|2002||Patrick Meagher (Australia)|
|2001||Jonathan Pflug (Singapore)|
|2000||Simon Quinn (Australia)|
|1999||Simon Quinn (Australia)|
|1998||Mark Thomson (Australia)|
|1997||Jonathan Walbridge (New Zealand)|
|1996||Kirsty McNeill (Scotland)|
|1995||Niall Paterson (Scotland)|
|1994||Niall Paterson (Scotland)|
|1992||Dominic Johnson (England)|
|1991||Marc Oppenheimer (United States)|
|1990||Stephen Magee (Scotland)|
|1989||championship not held|
World Universities Debating Championship
|University Parliamentary Debating|
|World Universities Debating Championship|
|Asia · Australasia · Europe · John Smith Memorial Mace · North America|
|Australia · Canada · Ireland|
|APDA · CUSID · English-Speaking Union · NPDA|
|Australasian · British Parliamentary|
|Lists of debaters|
|IONA Debating Circuit|
|Birmingham · Cambridge · Cork · Galway |
Glasgow · Limerick · Manchester · Maynooth
Otago · Ottawa · Oxford · Sydney · Tilbury
TCD-Hist · TCD-Phil · UBC · UCD-L&H
UCD-Law · Victoria · Western Ontario · Yale
The World Universities Debating Championship (WUDC) is the world's largest debating tournament, and one of the largest annual international student events in the world. It is a parliamentary debating event, held using a variant of the British Parliamentary Debate format. Each year, the event is hosted by a university selected by the World Universities Debating Council. The tournament is colloquially referred to as "Worlds".
Past champions and hosts
- 2009 - to be hosted by University College Cork, Ireland
- 2010 - to be hosted by Koc University, Turkey
World Debating Championships
Currently, the top 20 universities out of 429 institutions are ranked by Colm Flynn as follows:
- 01. University of Sydney, Australia
- 02. University of Oxford, England
- 03. University of Cambridge, England
- 04. Monash University, Australia
- 05. University College Dublin, Ireland
- 06. Yale University, United States
- 07. University College Cork, Ireland
- 08. Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines
- 09. University of Queensland, Australia
- 10. University of Dublin, Trinity College, Ireland
- 11. University of Toronto, Canada
- 12. International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
- 13. University of Melbourne, Australia
- 14. University of New South Wales, Australia
- 15. University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
- 16. Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
- 17. Nanyang Technological University , Singapore
- 18. Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
- 19. Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
- 20. University of La Verne, United States
- European Universities Debating Championship
- North American Debating Championship
- Australasian Intervarsity Debating Championships
- List of debaters