Rabu, 28 Mei 2008

Sistem Pendidikan

Sistem Pendidikan


Arip Nurahman

Departemen Pendidikan Fisika, FPMIPA, Indonesia University of Education


Follower Open Course Ware at MIT-Harvard University, U.S.A.

Education systems

Education systems are established to provide education and training, in most cases for children and the young. A curriculum defines what students should know, understand and be able to do as the result of education. A teaching profession delivers teaching which enables learning, and a system of polices, regulations, examinations, structures and funding enables teachers to teach to the best of their abilities. Sometimes education systems can be used to promote doctrines or ideals as well as knowledge, which is known as social engineering. This can lead to political abuse of the system, particularly in totalitarian states and government.

Primary education

Main article: Primary education

Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842.

Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or seven years of schooling starting at the age of 5 or 6, although this varies between and sometimes within countries. Globally, around 70% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising.[1].

Under the Education for All program driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate middle schools with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Mostly schools which provide primary education are referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior schools.

Secondary education

Main article: Secondary education

In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education consists of the second years of formal education that occur during adolescence. It is characterised by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools.

The exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States and Canada primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1-13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession.

Higher education

Main article: Higher education

The Indonesia University of Education, The University of Cambridge, Harvard University and MIT are institute of higher learning.

UPI | Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Harvard University

University of Cambridge


Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions.Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees.

Higher education includes teaching, research and social services activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Higher education in that country generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.

Adult Education

Lifelong, or adult, education has become widespread in many countries. However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as adult learning or lifelong learning. Adult education takes on many forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning.

Lending libraries provide inexpensive informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. The rise in computer ownership and internet access has given both adults and children greater access to both formal and informal education. In Scandinavia a unique approach to learning termed folkbildning has long been recognised as contributing to adult education through the use of learning circles. Mode of Education. 1-formal education, 2-informal education , 3-Non formal education.

Formal Education:

The hierarchically structured, chronologically graded education system, running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialized programs and institutions for full time technical and professional training.

Informal Education:

The truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitude, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment from family and neighbors, from work and play, from the market place the library and the mass media.

Non-Formal Education:

Any organized educational activity outside the established formal system- whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives.

Alternative Education

Main article: Alternative education

Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term which may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education). This may include both forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability) and forms of education designed for a general audience which employ alternative educational philosophies and/or methods.

Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education. While some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools, independent schools, and home-based learning vary widely, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community.

In certain places, especially in the United States, the term alternative may largely refer to forms of education catering to "at risk" students, as it is, for example, in this definition drafted by the Massachusetts Department of Education.







Menimbang :

a. bahwa pembukaan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia tahun 1945 mengamanatkan Pemerintah Negara Indonesia yang melindungi segenap bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh tumpah darah Indonesia dan untuk memajukan kesejahteraan umum, mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa, dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi dan keadilan sosial;

b. bahwa Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945 mengamanatkan Pemerintah mengusahakan dan menyelenggarakan satu sistem pendidikan nasional yang meningkatkan keimanan dan ketakwaan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa serta akhlak mulia dalam rangka mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa yang diatur dengan undang-undang;

c. bahwa sistem pendidikan nasional harus mampu menjamin pemerataan kesempatan pendidikan, peningkatan mutu serta relevansi dan efisiensi manajemen pendidikan untuk menghadapi tantangan sesuai dengan tuntutan perubahan kehidupan lokal, nasional, dan global sehingga perlu dilakukan pembaharuan pendidikan secara terencana, terarah, dan berkesinambungan;

d. bahwa Undang-undang Nomor 2 Tahun 1989 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional tidak memadai lagi dan perlu diganti serta perlu disempurnakan agar sesuai dengan amanat perubahan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945;

e. bahwa berdasarkan pertimbangan sebagaimana dimaksud pada huruf a, b, c, dan d, perlu membentuk Undang-Undang tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional.

Pada tahap sekarang ini Indonesia telah memasuki tahap pembangunanan dalam dunia pendidikan walaupun tampaknya dunia pendidikan di indonesia masih sangat memprihatinkan namun di balik itu dunia pendidikan di Indonesia mengalami sedikit peningkatan bila kita bandingkan dengan dunia pendidikan yang ada di Indonesia sebelumnya.

Namun semua itu masih banyak hal yang perlu di perbaiki dalam dunia pendidikan yang ada di Indonesia antara lain sistem pendidikan yang ada sekarang ini.

Sistem pendidikan yang ada di Indonesia kayaknya perlu ada perumbakan dalam arti tidak merumbak untuk menghancurkan sistem pendidikan yang lama dengan mengganti metode yang baru, namun kita harus bisa sama-sama menutupi lobang-lobang yang ada dalam dunia pendidikan sekarang ini.

Sebagai mana metode pengajaran yang ada di bangku kuliah sekarang ini masih menganggap seorang mahasiswa itu sebagai anak-anak yang bodoh dan perlu di dikte oleh dosen padahal pada kenyataannya seorang mahasiswa itu belum tentu lebih bodoh dari dosennya akan tetapi mungkin dosennya lebih bodoh dari mahasiswanya, namun Dosen lebih dahulu memandang dunia ini, seperti yang kita lihat sekarang ini keadaan real yang ada dosen selalu memegang kekuasaan kebenaran padahal dosen tersebut belum tentu benar.

Maka sistem seperti itu harus kita ubah agar mahasiswa kuliah itu tidak hanya mengejar nilai yang bagus di mata dosen tapi mahasiswa itu membuka wacananya berpikir dan bisa mengatakan kebenaran menurut pola /sudut pikirannya, kalau memang itu pada kenyataannya benar.

Karna semua itu adalah salah satu tahap awal bagi seorang mahasiswa untuk membuka wacananya berpikir kritis dan berinteraksi langsung dengan dunia pendidikan yang ada.


1. Wikipedia

2. Depdiknas

Arip Nurahman

Guru dan Dosen Profesional

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